|Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Indonesia (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 44 p.)|
The integrated development is school-centred, focusing on the school, occurring at school and conducted by the school. All the efforts are aimed at the improvement of the quality of the school, the increase of efficiency and the effectiveness of the school. Basically integrated school development promotes the autonomy of a school.
Some principles of the development are:
1. The integrated development should take place at the school.
2. The first step is to consolidate the management of the school, so that it initiates and mobilises all activities in improving the efficiency and the effectiveness of the school integratedly. It starts from planning, implementing, evaluating and all aspects of management activities conducted by the schools.
3. For accelerating the process of integrated development, a number of schools will be assisted by the Centre for Development and Teacher Upgrading (PPPG). The assistance of the Centre is to guide and support the process of the development. On the other hand, the involvement of the Centre at school will not influence and reduce the function of the official supervision of the existing organisation system of the Regional Office.
The integrated development approach demands all activities and school components be inter-related, depending on each other, and influencing each other in a system which can be drawn as follows:
1. Organisation and Management
Effectiveness of the school resources involved in the teaching learning process is determined by the quality of the management and the organisation as a tool for achievement of objectives. The school principal has an important role in the success of the implementation of the development program. The teacher and all the staff must play a role of their own in implementing the program based on the effective school organisation.
2. The Program/Curriculum
Each school that implements the integrated development has the possibility of modifying the subject content of the curriculum based on the need and the relevance of world of work. The content of the subject should be developed cooperatively with the local industry, however the national curriculum could not be changed. The modified subject content has the aim of improving the quality of the graduates so that they can be easily absorbed by the local job market
3. The Teacher
The quality and the number of qualified teachers are important aspects in producing qualified graduates. Each school of this integrated program should have an analysis of need for teacher and has a continuous upgrading and career development of teacher. Opportunity of each teacher to go and work in industry is encouraged besides attending seminar, workshop and other upgrading programs.
4. The Facilities
The idea of integrated development approach is mainly the optimisation of the use of the existing school facilities, besides obtaining the procuring the new equipment. Each school in this program should maintain the equipment continuously and systematically according to an effective system. Damages should be repaired promptly, so that it will not disturb the teaching and learning process. To support the teaching and learning process each school must have a library which provides books for students.
5. Operational Budget
Operational budget should include:
· materials for theory and workshop practice
· operational budget for facilities, including power, electricity, lighting and water
· operational budget for maintenance and repair
A school as a part of the environment should maintain and take care of the environmental conservation.
School has the function of educating students. The quality of student plays an important role in the success of education. Student selection should be conducted based on talent and interest. During the school year, students are introduced to career guidance which has the functions of:
· assisting the students in selecting study programs which suit their interests and talents related to the work prospect in the future
· assisting the student in solving learning problems
8. The Graduates
Each school has to compete with others in producing qualified graduates. System of final examination by involving the user will be beneficial to the school in maintaining the standard of the graduates. A school of integrated development has the responsibility of marketing the graduates. Similar to marketing theory, schools have to consider the following:
· Studying the Job Market
Each school continuously has to monitor the job market and anticipate the future. Links and cooperation with industries is recommended. Each school should have the list of industry, enterprises and institutions that have and will possibly absorb the graduates.
Schools have to promote their quality to the user and the community. This could be done through conducting open day, leaflet, brochures, etc.
· Tracer System
Each school should have an effective tracer system. Data of graduates should be kept up-to-date. Alumni organisation is recommended. School alumnis are potential people for marketing the graduates.