|Financing Technical and Vocational Education: Modalities and Experiences (UNEVOC, 1996, 64 p.)|
Technical and vocational education, according to UNESCOs Convention on Technical and Vocational Education,
... refers to all forms and levels of the education process involving, in addition to general knowledge, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, know-how, attitudes and understanding relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.
It can be provided
... in educational institutions or through co-operative programmes organised jointly by educational institutions, on the one hand, and industrial, agricultural, commercial or any other undertaking related to the world of work, on the other
Thus, technical and vocational education occurs in a large variety of structures and under various responsibilities, both in the public and in the private sector. As far as its financing is concerned, additional factors related to the socio-economic, political and administrative situations prevailing in respective countries, have to be taken into account.
This partially explains why UNESCOs Convention on Technical and Vocational Education, which covers extensive areas of technical and vocational education, such as, its objectives and principles, its contents, its structures, its development, its teaching staff, and its international co-operation, does not even touch upon the issue of financing technical and vocational education.
Financing, however, is as crucial an issue to technical and vocational education, as technical and vocational education itself is to human resources development in any country, no matter at what stage of development.
UNESCO can hardly supply its Member States with prescriptions for the financing of their individual systems of technical and vocational education. It can, however, explain various options and modalities, and disseminate experiences in this area that have been gathered from existing systems. It is to this end that UNESCO is disseminating the present documents. The first contribution, by Ms Pradeep BOLINA, provides a systematic overview of various modalities of public and private finance of technical and vocational education.1 The second contribution, by Mr David ATCHOARENA, draws conclusions from experience with various existing concepts of financing.
1 Ms Bolinas contribution had previously been published by the German Foundation for International Development (DSE). Her text has been slightly edited; the table has been updated in the light of recent data from the UNESCO Statistical Yearbook
This document has been prepared by UNEVOC Berlin in co-operation with the German Foundation for International Development (DSE) and UNESCOs International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).
It is hoped that it will stimulate the debate in Member States, and contribute to new and creative solutions to the pressing need for the effective financing of technical and vocational education.
Chief, UNEVOC Berlin