|Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Indonesia (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 44 p.)|
A new development of the technical and vocational education program is emphasising a dual system of apprenticeship. Although the system has been known for a long time, the implementation of the system has only been successfully conducted in 1989 when the new SMT Perkapalan Surabaya (Senior Technical School of Shipbuilding Trade) was organised by the Ministry of Education and Culture and PT.PAL (A shipbuilding enterprise).
The school building and some basic equipment as well as theory subject teachers were provided by the MOEC, while the PT.PAL provided workshop practice, on-the-job training and apprenticeship program. The curriculum was developed cooperatively between the MOEC and PT.PAL. During the three-year school program, practical work training of two-to-three full days per week is conducted in industry (PT.PAL), while the remaining days of the week are used for theory at school. The apprenticeship program is carried out for six full months after the final examination of the three-year school program, so that the total training duration is three-and-a-half years. At the end of the apprenticeship program a final examination is conducted by industry.
In 1993 the policy of apprenticeship was launched by the new minister and will colour the new era of technical and vocational education development. The apprenticeship system will be widely introduced as a very effective model in approaching the relevance between supply and demand of manpower, as the realisation of the Ministry of Education policy of Link and Match.
The level of professional manpower skill involved in the production process will determine the quality, production cost, and final product, which then determines the ability to compete. Indonesia requires high professional manpower skill to face the development of global economy at the moment and in the future.
Technical and vocational education should produce professional skilled workers. Professional skill could be achieved through dual system, an education conducted at school and industry. Direct experience through the real work in industry with the guidance and supervision of professional workers and in an industrial atmosphere should be part of the technical and vocational education system.
The apprenticeship system is a form of educational operation for professional skill that systematically and synchronously integrates the educational program at school with the skill competencies program obtained through work activities directly in the world of work, aimed at achieving a determined level of professional skill.
Basically the apprenticeship program is a cooperative program of the school and its partner from industry/business. The implementation should be discussed and be agreed by both sides. The normative and adaptive aspects of the curriculum are fully carried out by the school and are the responsibility of the school. The basic profession could be carried out in industry and is the responsibility of school and industry. The professional component is fully the responsibility of related industry/business. The apprenticeship program can be carried out in the form of day releases or block release.
The implementation of apprenticeship system has the following objectives:
· to produce manpower with professional skill (with level of knowledge, skill, and work spirit relevant to the demands of the field of work)
· to strengthen the link and match between school and world of work
· to increase the efficiency of educational process and training of manpower with professional quality
· to acknowledge and appreciate the work experience as part of the educational process
The dissemination of the apprenticeship and dual system concept will continuously be carried out to the community and especially to industry and world of business. In the school year of 1994/1995 the dual system will be conducted at about 200 senior technical and vocational schools and will be participated in by more than 2400 enterprises.