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close this bookThe Role of Technical and Vocational Education in the Educational System in Ghana (UNEVOC, 1994, 46 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTHE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION
View the documentHUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
View the documentTHE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
View the documentOBJECTIVES AND CONTENT OF EDUCATION
View the documentTECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM
View the documentNATIONAL CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE FOR TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
View the documentINSTITUTIONS AND PROGRAMMES
View the documentFINANCING OF TVE
View the documentLINKS WITH INDUSTRIES
View the documentCAREER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
View the documentTHE INFORMAL SECTOR
View the documentEXAMINATIONS AND ACCREDITATION
View the documentFORECAST OF THE FUTURE SITUATION
View the documentEXISTING PROBLEMS
View the documentNATIONAL POLICIES AND INNOVATIVE MEASURES
View the documentPARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
View the documentINTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION
View the documentENHANCING THE SOCIAL STATUS OF THE TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM AND ITS GRADUATES
View the documentAPPENDIX 'B' - SOME MINISTRIES, ORGANISATIONS AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS ENGAGED IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN GHANA
View the documentBIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES

EXISTING PROBLEMS

There are vast opportunities for technical and vocational education and training in Ghana in terms of the large number of public and private technical institutions. Sadly, however, the impact of these on national development has not been significant due to a number of constraints, including the following:

a) The people of Ghana in general put a low value on technical and vocational education and training. Their attitude to this type of education is that it is inferior to academic education. As a result of this attitude, it has been the less bright pupils from first-cycle educational institutional who have often opted for technical and vocational education courses.

b) The education and vocational guidance given to pupils/students in school, especially at the basic education level, is inadequate.

c) Available funds for carrying out programmes of technical and vocational education and training are inadequate. Most of the cost of administration and training in the public segment of the technical and vocational education system is borne by Government and, to some extent, by donor agencies. There is little or no support from the private sector, financial procedures are cumbersome and the budgetary system is unreliable, thus adversely affecting the funding of technical and vocational education in the public sector.

d) The existing infrastructure for technical and vocational education in terms of buildings, equipment and tools is deteriorating and inadequate. Most of the technical and vocational institutions do not have well-equipped workshops, laboratories, classrooms and libraries. A lot of the items of equipment in the technical institutions in both the public and private sectors and the two Technical Teacher training Colleges, which were installed over 30 years ago, have either broken down, worn out or become obsolete. The technical and vocational institutions do not have adequate training materials and books.

e) There is an acute shortage of qualified, competent and experienced teachers in some technical institutions and in most Junior Secondary Schools, Senior Secondary Technical Schools and the Teacher Training Colleges offering technical subjects.

f) In spite of the massive contribution to education by the technical and vocational institutions in the private sector, they have serious defects in training delivery and certification. There is a definite need to upgrade their performance.

g) The linkage between technical and vocational institutions on the one hand and the industry and commerce on the other, is not strong enough. As a result, the skills training in the institutions is not closely related to the requirements of industry and commerce.

h) There is a lack of opportunities for practical training in industry and commerce, because the well-established firms are reluctant to take students from the technical institutions on the grounds that: i. the firms are producing below capacity; ii. the students are not fully trained and so retard the progress of work in the firms when they come on attachment; iii. the students are not covered by insurance.

i) In Ghana, the participation of females in technical and vocational education is relatively low.

j) There is inadequate Labour Market Information (LMI) to guide the educational authorities in determining the types of courses to run in the technical and vocational institutions.