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close this bookTrends in Articulation Arrangements for Technical and Vocational Education in the South East Asian Region (RMIT, 1999, 44 p.)
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View the documentOverview
View the documentAustralia
View the documentIndonesia
View the documentMalaysia
View the documentThe Philippines
View the documentSingapore
View the documentThailand
View the documentConclusions
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View the documentInterviews


Articulation pathways for technical and vocational education course graduates were evident in all countries considered by this study, though such provision varied significantly, from extensive linkages between TVE and higher education, through to quite limited opportunities for articulation.

There are two broad precursors for effective TVE articulation arrangements:

· the general availability of primary and secondary education.

· a higher education system that has some capacity to accept other than secondary school graduates into undergraduate courses.

Many countries in the region have educational priorities that focus government funding toward improving the quality of primary education, expanding the availability of secondary education, and targeting the provision of postsecondary TVE and higher education. In such an environment the possibility of a government funding articulation pathways for TVE graduates is restricted.

The primary focus of TVE should be the education and training of skilled workers and technicians/paraprofessionals, to enable them to competently undertake work in their chosen occupation. Articulation arrangements should not compromise this objective. On the other hand, TVE programs should be sufficiently broad to enable graduates to undertake higher level programs with some credit transfer where this is justified.

TVE courses are often regarded as being less desirable than parallel academic programs, because the academic stream usually offers better opportunities for further study or employment. This is less of a consideration when TVE courses have a core of academic studies, because such arrangements leave open the door to further study.

Constrained public funding for education has frequently encouraged private institutions to play a key role, particularly at the postsecondary level, and in the provision of skills training. There is considerable scope to expand articulation pathways for TVE graduates through private sector institutions, and this is occurring in a number of countries.

Advances in flexible delivery arrangements, and in particular information technology driven course delivery may offer significant articulation opportunities on a previously unimagined scale.

There appears to be correlation between broad availability of TVE/higher education articulation arrangements, and an economy that has a significant services sector, high technology industries and substantial manufacturing capacity. Such a national economy demands continual workforce retraining/upgrading.

Many countries in the Asia have comparatively limited modem industry and are at an early stage of development. Agriculture is usually important in such states and provides significant employment. Nevertheless, an economy can be transformed within a decade or so with prudent investment, sound planning and management, together with periods of international prosperity. Intertwined with economic development is the necessity for education which complements short and long term national, economic and social needs.

Long term objectives demand a workforce that is knowledgable and adaptable. Although provision of education is always restrained by available resources it is important that such provision avoids terminal programs that limit individual growth. Governments when formulating policy for provision of education in the long term, might take into account the desirability of developing effective articulation arrangements.

Effective articulation arrangements are a key factor in enhancing the status of technical and vocational education.