|Promotion of Linkage between Technical and Vocational Education and the World of Work - Studies No. 10 (UNEVOC, 1997, 138 p.)|
|Final Report on the International Expert Meeting on the Promotion of Linkage Between Technical/Vocational Education and the World of Work (Tokyo, Japan, 3-6 February 1997)|
A number of issues were discussed during the meeting and formed the basis to formulate recommendation, strategies and suggestions for TVE which could be considered further by UNESCO and its Member States.
The first group of issues discussed arose from the session on multimedia. It was noted that once this initial infrastructure had been introduced, this approach is ideal to teach various TVE students more efficiently. The following major issues have been discussed:
1. Major implications of multimedia and the use of networks:
· curriculum development, teaching and accreditation of students;
· training of teachers to assist them in their changing role to support students computer-assisted learning and development of curriculum that might become teaching software;
· meeting the needs of different countries: some curriculum is common for many countries, but sometimes it needs translation, while other curricula are highly specific for the countries.
2. The use of a multimedia or network approach to develop competencies through self-learning: Students need to develop specific skills in order to receive knowledge through this new approach to learning.
3. The financing of the development of these multimedia approaches: The implications for both developed and developing countries.
4. Evaluation of students achievements through multimedia methods: How can recognition be given to learning in non-formal settings on the job or undertaken by employees?
5. The new roles of teachers: Teachers must be able to:
· assist students to develop a competency for self-learning;
· assist students to structure knowledge from the wide range of available sources so that it is transferrable and prepare them to deal effectively with a mass of information, including sophisticated ideas.
The meeting also discussed more general issues arising from the country papers presented. The following issues were seen as important:
1. How can countries, and particularly developing ones, gain the maximum benefit from the growing internationalization of TVE, as part of the increasing globalization of the world economy?
2. What changes are necessary for the providers of TVE to fulfill their changing role, particularly in terms of their need to establish closer link among industry, enterprises and employers?
3. What is the likely impact of the growing use of information technology on TVE and its delivery, whether in formal settings, on the job, or other settings?
4. What are the broader goals of TVE beyond the development of work-related skills, for example, its contribution to self-development and personal growth, so that individuals contribute fully to society and not just to the work place?
5. How can the coordination between TVE and general education be improved providing more flexible forms of articulation between the two? This may require changing the concept of TVE and general education so that they become integrated and as far as the students are concerned, preparing them for both work and life.
6. How can the status of TVE be raised so that it takes its proper place alongside general and higher education? In the short term, this will require creating better pathways among these three sectors, and including work as well as viewing TVE itself as a form of general education preparing people for a broad range of future employment as general education is expected to do.
7. How can employers and enterprises be encouraged to fulfill their role in bringing the world of work closer to the TVE providers in a climate where more and more is being expected of them by all three education sectors? How can they better fulfill their role in co-operative projects?
During the discussion it was noted that there was a trend to develop special universities to cater for TVE students. This was the case in Saudi Arabia where they were intended specifically for TVE students, the Republic of Korea where the new universities were being established as the corner-stone of TVE and in Japan, where previous polytechnic type universities had endeavoured to transform into traditional universities. This second trend was noted in several countries.
The importance of vocational guidance to young people was recognized for adequate information on the various options available to them. It was reported that in some countries students were becoming increasingly attracted to TVE, since they could see how it relates more directly to employment and provides also options undertaken at university courses either by being given credit for their TVE studies or having special university courses designed for them. The opportunity to enter university for the maester degree in Germany was quoted as an example.
It was pointed out that some enterprises are not aware of the various changes that have occurred in TVE systems in general and what is happening in technical colleges in particular. This was seen as a real barrier to getting better support for TVE from industry.