|Policy Development and Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education for Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific - Conference Proceedings - UNESCO - UNEVOC Regional Conference (RMIT, 1997, 520 p.)|
By Liu Jiantong, SEDC of P. R. China
On November 11-15, 1996 Melbourne
Recent years, a new tendency for Chinese TVE is that the linkages of industries and TVE institutions have been stressed. This tendency gives a strong stimulation to the development of TVE and will be the new growing point of TVE. Here, I would give an analysis of the reason of the linkage and a brief introduction of some policies of our country for the tendency.
1. The Reason
Studying the tendency, at first we must examine the relationship of TVE and industries. From the relationship, the linkage of industries and TVE can be seen as a natural phenomenon. We can look the relationship through two aspects - industry and TVE aspects.
For industry, its development and progress depends on many factors, such as social environment, market conditions, technology level, management art, manpower situation and so on. When other factors are relatively fixed, manpower will be the most important factor to promote industries development. Then, how industries to get the manpower they needed, there are mainly three ways - training by themselves, recruiting from labor market and enlisting from TVE institutions.
For TVE, historically speaking, it evolved from economic development and modern production came into being. That is to say, TVE's fate is linking with economy (i.e industries). We must recognize, the existing and future of TVE mainly depend on economic development and social progress. From this point, TVE's purpose to serve economy and industry will be self-proved. So, we think, TVE can never develop independently if it is devorced from the economy and industry.
From the analysis above, we can get such conclusions: industries and TVE are tow bodies in the same market. They can not leave each other. Generally speaking, industries are buyers (demander) and TVE institutions are sellers (supplyer). To set up good relations between the buyer and seller will further mutual understanding, get benefits together and even promote the national economic and social development.
2. The Policies and Measures We Take Although we say that TVE and industries have a natural relationship, they are not same things. They have different work fields and operate according each rules. Besides, it's not everybody understanding the important meaning to linking the TVE and industries. So, the government must take the responsibility to marry TVE and industries. In the light of Chinese situation, to strengthen the linkages of industries and TVE, our government has taken such policies and measures as follows:
- Legislation. On September 1, 1986, The Vocational Education Law of The People's Republic of China' has begun to being implemented. This is the first law on TVE in Chinese TVE history. In the law, there are some stipulations to determine the basis of setting up linkage between TVE and industries. All trade organizations, enterprises have the duty to carry out the vocational education according to the law (Clause 6). All TVE institutions should make close relations with enterprises.... All TVE institutions may establish enterprises or training basses according the need (Clause 23). These provisions give a strong support for the linkage between TVE and industries.
- Persuading and Making Pubic Opinions. In last June, our central government has hold a national vocational education work conference. In the conference, Premier Li Peng and vice-Premier Li Lanqing said a lot on developing TVE vigorously, asked for TVE and industries to make close ties. Other leaders from education, labour and industries also called on good relations between TVE and industries (especially enterprises). Besides, we have made some government documents to stress the meaning and necessity on setting up linkage between TVE institutions and industries and asked key persons of TVE line and industries line to learn. We have also propaganded some typical cases through the media, shown the benefits TVE institutions and industries get from their good relation.
- Establishing Encouragement Mechanism. In practice, we find that linking TVE institutions and industries is not only theoretic problem, but also a interests problem. Only do the two sides all get benefits, the linkage can became solid and develop smoothly. Therefore, we have made some policies to encourage the linkage. For industries, those enterprises that done a lot in TVE can exempt some extra taxes, get more chances to tram its staff through education sector, enlist labour from TVE institutions first and so on. For TVE institutions, those institutions that having good relation with industries can automatically use their extra income, get more projects from higher level sector. Otherwise, they will he criticised and even fined (only to enterprises). Additionally, we also give some loan to some TVE institutions to help them establish firms.
3. The Existing Linkage Modes in China
In the above, I mentioned the attitude and thinking of us towards linkage of TVE institutions and industries. Now, I would like give a brief introduction about the existing modes of linking TVE institutions and industries in our country,
- TVE institutions run by enterprises (industries). The typical cases are the Skill Workers' School (SWS) and the Secondary Technical School (STS). There are about 4,400 SWS and 4,000 STS on the whole country. More than 80 percent of them are established and run by enterprises (industries). Education branch has the right to guide, assess, check and prove them. This kind TVE institutions are important in our country. Because the enterprises (industries) are founders of such institutions, the link between institutions and enterprises are very strong. However it should be pointed out that just those large enterprises and major industries take part in such activities.
- Linking running institutions. This kind linkage of WE institutions and industries are major modes at present. So-called linking running can be divided into several forms: First, one or several enterprises make contracts with some TVE institutions, they just give money to the institutions, and in return, the institutions allot graduates to them; Second, the enterprises provide some workshops and equipment to institutions so that the students can get practical training; Third, the enterprises send some technicians to the institutions to help teaching; Forth, enterprises and TVE institutions set up management board or commission together. The board (commission) always has regular meeting to study and discuss problems faced by enterprises and institutions. The last form, we think, is the best one and has been encouraged.
- TVE institutions run enterprises. We think, it also can be seen as a form of linkage of TVE institutions and industries. In our country, from primary schools to universities, school-run enterprise has been encouraged. The main reason to do so comes from the fact that funds are generally shortage. But for TVE institutions, we think, it has great meaning. The TVE institutions can get not only income from enterprises they run, but also the experiences of real economic and social life. Now we are paying great efforts to help TVE institutions establish and develop their firms (for example, we have already get some loans for them). The shortcomings of it is that school-run enterprises are relative small and limited in providing practical training to students.
Finally, I must repeatedly point out that the linkage of TVE institutions and industries is a new growing point of TVE development. The future of TVE will depend on this linkage. If we do it better, TVE will become more and more prospering, even the country's economic development also can get new improvement.