|Policy Development and Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education for Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific - Conference Proceedings - UNESCO - UNEVOC Regional Conference (RMIT, 1997, 520 p.)|
By NGUYEN VIET SU
Ministry of Education and Training
Towards the 21 century the Vietnam is setting up one action plan with new policy to develop TVET system, contributing to the Socio-economic development of the country, and keeping place with the development of other countries in the region and in the whole world.
New policies for TVET system will be developed new motive force to enhance quality of Human Resource, create contributing to industrialization and modernization of our economy in Vietnam.
Policy development on should be based on theory and practice, therefore many related problems should be solved. One of them is the following problem - linkage between labour market planning and TVET for promoting linkages between labour market planning and TVET Research of Vietnam in the co-operation and support of member countries which attend this meeting.
I. NEW DEMANDS FOR THE HUMAN RESOURCE IN THE INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MODERNIZATION OF THE ECONOMY -NEW CHALLENGES FOR TVET IN VIETNAM
1. Developing a market economy:
Vietnam's Socio-Economy has been developed in 10 years of Renovation. During this period the economy has the growth GDP annual average 8,2 per cent, the annual average of export volume increased by 3,800 millions USD of last 1992 to 23,000 millions USD of August 1996.
Major industries sections as Crude oil, Power, Coal, Cement, Laminated Steel,... which have rapid growth.
Growth in total industrial output has 13.3 per cent annually and in total agriculture has 4.5 per cent annually growth rate of production of foods is 25 - 27 millions tons annually, 1,5-2 millions tons for exports. Quality of life is enhanced all fields. Such as health, education, culture, have developed. In 10 - 15 coming years the Vietnam Government has paid special attention to the industrialization and modernization of our economy: achieving an economic growth rate that exceeds that of the previous 5 years rate (92 - 96). GDP is increased at an average annual rate of 9 - 10 per cent, in the agriculture sector (including forestry and fishing) increased by 4,5 - 5 per cent, industry by 13 -14 per cent, and the service sector by 11 - 12 per cent. By the year 2000, the share of industry in GDP increased about 34 - 35 per cent, agriculture about 19-20 per cent and the service sector about 45 - 46 per cent of GDP.
The long-term economic effective is to industrialize and modernize so that Vietnam can move from a backward economy dominated by agriculture towards a industrialized economy, gradually reducing the gap in the level of development of other countries in the region.
Education and training policies are the first steps and are aimed at raising the people intellectual level, training manpower, nurturing talents. Relationship between economy and education is very close.
We pay special attention to the tendency of socio-economy of the Asia - Pacific region as follows:
- To internationalize economic activities through export, joint-ventures and investment from outside-other countries.
- Tendencies of high technologies development which produce new goods with high quality attracting consumers for increasing in the quality of life.
- The tendency developing intermediate and small enterprises as well as creating favourable conditions for the development of private and informal sectors.
- Tendency of selection and priority in development professional structure and level structure of Human Resources which will create flexibility and effectiveness for labour market.
- Tendency of open door policy and culture exchanging and activities in sport, environment protection, Aids prevention,...
2. New demands of Human Resource in industrialization and modernization - challenges for TVET system in Vietnam.
The socio-economic development of Vietnam in industrialization requires new demands for human resources. Professional structure includes more occupations: from handicraft to modern informative technology, oil chemistry technology, the qualifications mechanism will be formed according to pyramid form flexibly with the appropriate ratio of engineers - technicians - workers.
Worker has three levels: skilled, semi-skilled and blue-collar workers.
In a market - oriented industry, workers and technicians must have the following qualities:
- A high level of education, and adequate basic technical knowledge and have a spirit of enterprising and creativity in their work.
- Wide knowledge and skills in various technical fields in order to be able to adapt quickly to new changes in production,...
- Knowledge of economic and business management: they must be enterprising enough to find jobs, and decide what is suitable to their capabilities and conditions. This is very important for enhancing the creativity and adaptability of each individual in diversified production.
They must meet the international standards. The high quality of their knowledge and skills according to the international standards is necessary for the exporting Vietnamese labour force to the others countries in the world and establishing the new joint-ventures in Vietnam.
These demands of future labour market are challenges for the development of TVET in Vietnam. The development of VTET should effectively solve the problems of the links with labour market: supply and demand relation, price and quality relation, space and time relation. hi order to solve these problems of relations, we must promote a TVET research to make a new policy and solutions for setting up a target, content and training method on theory and practice basis. The contents of training curriculum could be flexibly designed and meet the new demands of human resources in the future industrialization, thanks to scientific VTET Research outputs.
II. LINKAGE BETWEEN LABOUR MARKET PLANNING AND A TVET RESEARCH.
The relation between socio-economic situation, employment market, labour market, education and training are very close. It's also a cause and effect relation. It would be ideal when a employment market satisfies the demands of a labour market. In order to do we need to conduct research a forecast and plan in advance.
1. Employment market of Vietnam.
The development of a market mechanism economy, the very rapid population growth and human resources growth create favourable condition between employees and employers is happening. Nowadays labour market in Vietnam has the following characteristics:
- Labour market is divided by geographical factors, life style of the people management regulation which lead to difficult market exchanges between areas.
- The imbalance in labour supply and demand relations in the whole country, supply exceeds demand which lead to unemployment.
- Occupation and qualification mechanisms are in appropriate. There is lack of high qualification technicians, but blue-collar labour workers are superfluous.
In general, the qualification of labour is still low: poor physical conditions, limited management and marketing knowledge, knowledge low level of foreign languages, lack of industrial working style.
- Labour force is low paid and not unified which leads to the imbalance in labour market in Vietnam and in an exchange with the other countries.
Obviously a labour market planning in Vietnam is not well implemented. Sometimes and in some places it is developed spontaneously. Initiatives for making an orientation and labour market planning in Vietnam, becomes very urgent. Especially, lack of labour market planning leads to the uncontrolled labour market. The implementation of a few labour contracts, labour forces export and formation of labour markets are not yet under to the lows and not yet effective.
This situation leads to a separation of labour market from education and training development, in which a direct relation with a labour market research and TVET development research is not yet set up.
Nowadays Vietnam has a population of 72 millions with labour force of 40 millions. Among them there is 13.8 per cent of labour workers who are trained in different levels. According to the forecast of a population and labour force in Vietnam in the next year: 82 millions and 45 millions in the year 2000; 95 millions and 52 millions in the year 2010; 110 millions and 60 millions in the year 2020. Vietnam Government is paying attention on to the for increasing the number of trained labour workers until 25 per cent in the year 2000 and 60 per cent in the year 2020. Labour market in Vietnam in the future will have an large size. It requires more than ever a labour market needs a close linkage with an education and training system provided by high quality and effective VTET research outputs.
2. Strategy research on TVET in Vietnam.
The research on TVET of Vietnam implemented in two centers with 30 researchers - perhaps too small. Except also teachers of 270 technical schools, 242 vocational schools, 200 vocational training centers but they have not high level and experiences in research on TVET.
Since 1986, the TVET research has been focused on some main issues: job category and its development; profession option; adaptation to job; encouragement of trade selection; setting up list of trade training; curriculum design and development; method of teaching; facilities and equipment.
From 1990, due to new requirements of technical manpower of labour market, the research is concentrated on: training model, short-term training course, diversifying the training objectives and integrating the content of curriculum.
Such studies contributed a positive part upgrading the quality and effectiveness of TVET system and indicate the basis for further research.
* Problems of Research on TVET in Vietnam.
- The research is carried on too specifically, without a strategic orientation. Relationship between labour market planning and research is too weak so that can not to meet for socio-economic demands.
- Due to the small budget, lack of materials and references as well as the incapability of staff for the master research, that is why the quality of recent research is poor. Moreover, it has not jet the national standards for evaluation and assessment of education quality.
- There is a very limited co-operation in education research of Vietnam with other countries, so we are lack of information access to do the research and refresh knowledge of the staff.
* On the basis of strategy on socio-economic and development of Vietnam, an action plan of education research in general, and especially of TVET research is established. The development and implementation of the research should be closely integrated. Strategic orientations of TVET research up to the year 2000 are the following:
- Doing the research on theoretical basis, orientations and solution for boosting the role of TVET in the development of skilled labour is very necessary to meet the requirements of labour market in the industrialization and modernization of the country. The research should emphasize on the structure of trades, the profession structure and determine an appropriate training system. Especially, the attention should be paid on renovation of training objective and reforming the training method of some driving industrial sectors, as well as traditional trades.
- One of the urgent demands is setting up a national professional standards in order to keep up with the level of other countries in the Asian's and in the Asia Pacific region. These standards are as the basis for evaluation and assessment of TVET quality and issuance of certificates with international value.
- Improvement of management system of TVET in the cooperation and support of industry and labour market planning.
- Renovation of curriculum, method of teaching, and upgrading the management and teaching staff of TVET.
- Study and forecast the development of the quality and quantity of technical and vocational human resources to me year 2020, and the ability to integrate with ASEAN countries in TVET.
III. POLICY RENOVATION IN TVET TO PROMOTE LINKAGES BETWEEN RESEARCH AND LABOUR MARKET PLANNING.
In keeping with the movement from a command economy to a market economy, the technical and vocational education and training system in Vietnam faces pressure to move from a supply driver orientation to a demands-driver orientation. Thus in planning and dimensioning technical and vocational education and training system, it is no longer enough to aim at simple numerical targets. The systems must also serve as a supplier of educated and trained labour to meet the rapidly changing, growing and diversifying demand for labour.
Vocational and technical education plays a particularly important role in the provision of an appropriately skilled work force. The fact that skilled labour forms, the majority of the Vietnamese labour market, necessitate the formulation of a strategy for development and action plans to upgrade the quality, to develop the quantity of the TVET system meeting the demand of labour force and preparing the country for the 21st century.
Therefore, policy renovation in TVET to become necessary as follows:
* To develop policies, which is encouraging diversity of TVET including formal and non-formal training system. Especially, continuing training, educational distance training sector should be more encouraged. Number of private schools with high quality should be considerably increased in comparison with the number of state schools in the national education system.
* To develop policies of increasing investment of the funds and facility for educational research units from many sources such as: governmental, local, people's contribution and employment unit's like enterprises, joint-ventures, manufacturing and servicing enterprises. There must be a regulation of suitable promotion according to the law, for manufacturing and servicing enterprises to pay for the products of TVET research and training.
* To develop policies of management in the national and provincial levels on research, training and assessment. There must be a national standards in a training process and certification for improvement of quality and effectiveness in TVET to meet the demands of labour market in and outside country.
* To renovate training policies, upgrade levels on specialization, foreign languages of researchers. Moreover, emphasize on sustain ability of the salary, working conditions and retraining and upgrading in the other countries to take the contemporary knowledge in the world.
* To develop policies on TVET information, emphasize on the development the internet. There must be investment to establish the network between research institutes, training schools and management units. Especially there must be encouraging policy to widen the change of information between manufacturing, servicing enterprises and research, training units to facilitate the close link between employment market and labour market.
* To develop policies on strengthening the international relations in the ASEAN region, PACIFIC and in the world on scientific TVET research. To emphasize on the changing the document, specialists and the organization of the mutual and bilateral workshops. Especially, there should be encouraging policy to promote a bilateral research and training projects.
TVET of Vietnam is facing many difficulties and now solving step by step the relations, including the relations between TVET research and labour market planning.
We are willing to cooperate and change the experience with the countries. We hope that we could receive the funds, facility and specialist's help to implement new policies in TVET in Vietnam.
We do believe that after our conference, we could have a common idea on the implementation for TVET development in each country, contributing to socio-economic development in the Pacific region.