|Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Indonesia (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 44 p.)|
The development of technical and vocational education in Indonesia during the first long-term development (1969-1994) has shown an encouraging improvement.
1. The overall developments are as follows:
· the establishment of the middle level technical and vocational education system based on manpower needs
· the increase number of technical and vocational schools for accommodating the increase number the school age children
· the wide range of programs of technical and vocational education to provide manpower need in accordance with the development of science and technology and the development of industry, services, trade and business. The programs are grouped in agriculture and forestry engineering technology, business and office affairs, health and social welfare, home economics and culture
2. The efforts of improving the quality and the effectiveness of technical and vocational education has been conducted through:
· the procurement of buildings, equipment, text books and learning aids for improving the teaching and learning process
· the improvement of curriculum especially for accommodating the local needs
· the upgrading of teachers and school staff including the improvement of school management capabilities
· the implementation of an integrated school development approach
3. For the improvement of efficiency of schools each school is encouraged:
· to conduct production unit as a means for the fostering of entrepreneurship and obtaining additional budget for teaching and learning process; to promote gradually the management of production unit into professional business
· to work out clear cooperation with industry and business in the stages of teaching and learning process starting from planning to evaluation and placement of the school graduates; to improve the cooperation gradually so that the institutional partnership could be established
4. Further improvement on quality will continuously be carried out through the apprenticeship system as the realisation of forming professional skills through dual system, a systematic and synchronous education conducted at school and industry.