|Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Indonesia (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 44 p.)|
Before 1969 the system of technical and vocational education in Indonesia was the continuation of the colonial system. After independence, the number of school and student enrolment was significantly increased, but unfortunately it was not followed by the provision of facilities especially equipment for workshop practice. The system was not orientated to the needs of skilled man power for the nation.
During the first five year development (1969-1974), the previous system was studied and analysed, then steps were taken to overcome the shortcomings. The technical vocational education was developed based on creating a balance between man power needs for supplying industrial expansion, educational aspiration of the community, and abilities needed for the development, covering skills, intelligence and a healthy attitude toward work.
Parallel to the national development strategies, the technical and vocational education was demanded to provide expansion of work opportunities and industrial development to suit the development. During this stage, up to 1989 the attention was given to further improve technical and vocational education as well as increase its quantity, although the main mission was still on the increasing number of student enrolment. For the quality improvement, the curriculum was developed and improved, the number of teachers was provided and was upgraded, the number of new buildings was constructed and renovated, besides books and workshop equipment was facilitated.
School Integrated Development or integrated development of school as a new strategy for quality improvement was introduced in 1989. The efforts were to increase the efficiency and the effectiveness of the school institution. Schools should be effective in the meaning of the optimum use of the available resources and efficient in the meaning of the high percentage of absorption of the school graduates by the world of work. The integrated development of school is the development based on school centred, focusing on the school, occurred at school and conducted by the school.
Basically the integrated development approach demands all activities of school elements to be interrelated as a system. The elements of school such as student, curriculum/program, teachers, facilities and graduates are improved, developed and renovated simultaneously in a system which influence each other. In addition to the integrated school development for improving the effectiveness and the efficiency, each individual school is also encouraged to establish production units and closely link with industry in the form of institutional partnership.
The latest development of the close link between technical and vocational schools with the industry is the implementation of The Dual System, where parts of the curriculum of technical and vocational education is conducted in industry in the form of a day release or block release system. This part of training in industry is aimed to breed the professionalism of the student.