|Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Indonesia (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 44 p.)|
Indonesia has a population of over 180 million people. The population is spread out over about 13,700 islands, which extend about 5,000 kilometres east to west and 2.000 kilometres north to south. Over 60 percent of the population lives in Java, which has a density of 800 people per square kilometre. The remaining population is spread out over the other islands especially in the big island of Sumatera.
The Indonesian Government policy has given emphasis on human resource development and supported a rapid expansion of the formal school system. Net primary education enrolment rates were an estimated 98 percent in 1988/ 1989 and about 100 percent at the end of 1993/1994, so that starting on the sixth five-year development plan (PELITA VI) or the starting of the second long term development plan (PJPT II, 1994/2019) Indonesia can increase the duration of compulsory education from six years to nine years.
The technical and vocational education in Indonesia is provided through junior technical and vocational schools (SMKTP) and senior technical and vocational schools (SMKTA) at secondary level and high school or universities for tertiary level. The junior technical and vocational school is planned to supply the semi-skilled worker, while the senior technical and vocational school will provide middle level manpower or tradesmen for the job market
Diploma programs for higher technician manpower qualification are provided at Polytechnics, high school or university, while degree programs for technologists are produced by high schools or universities.
Technical and vocational education is expected to be primarily job-oriented. Like any other type of education, technical and vocational education must also endeavour to develop a creative mind together with the capacity to apply knowledge and know-how. But technical and vocational education has to primarily consider the demands of the employment market where the acquired knowledge can be profitably used.
Ideally, the number of graduates available for job and employment opportunities should be balanced. Thus, the problems in technical and vocational education are both in quantity and quality. By quantity is meant the balance between the present and the future availability of technical and vocational educated manpower for industrial demands and other relevant technical and vocational manpower purposes, and quality is that the knowledge as well as skill of the graduates satisfy the requirements of the job market and world of work.
The role of the middle level manpower in the developing country is very important especially when the country of Indonesia has chosen industrialisation as the main alternative for economical takeoff. This is a study of the development of technical and vocational education, and will be concentrating on the development of senior technical and vocational education conducted under the Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education (Dit Dikmenjur) of the Director General of Primary and Secondary Education (Ditjen Dikdasmen), whose main role is providing middle level manpower of the country.
Specifically this study investigates the answers to the following:
· How is senior technical and vocational education in Indonesia developing?
· How does the senior technical and vocational education respond to the requirement of quantity due to the increased number of children of school age and the increased requirement for supplying middle level skill manpower?
· What is the strategy for the establishment of effective schooling which can cope with the development of science and technology and the demand of community?
· What is the approach to efficiently utilise the resources for supporting the operation of senior technical and vocational schools?
· How to promote the close linkage between the school system and industry in responding to the requirement of providing qualified graduates, and the changing demands of manpower, industry and the world of work.