agcensus.htm

FAO STATISTICAL DEVELOPMENT SERIES
No 6
CONDUCTING AGRICULTURAL CENSUSES AND SURVEYS
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
ROME, 1995

FOREWORD

Since its establishment, FAO has promoted national censuses of agriculture through the 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Programmes for the World Census of Agriculture.

In October 1995, FAO published the Programme for the World Census of Agriculture 2000 to assist countries with the conduct of their agricultural censuses, in the decade 1996-2005, by providing definitions, concepts, standards and guidelines for this Programme.

This publication 'Conducting Agricultural Censuses and Surveys' is a revised and updated edition of 'Taking Agricultural Censuses', 1978, FAO. It is complementary to the Programme for the World Census of Agriculture 2000 and provides much practical information on the steps involved in actually conducting an agricultural census either on a complete enumeration basis or a sample basis.

The revisions made refer particularly to new technical advances in computer techniques, frame preparations, sampling, etc. The principles for 'getting the job done' are based on many years of on-the-job experience contributed by national and international experts in this field as well as the staff of FAO's Statistical Development Service. FAO is grateful to all who have provided inputs and hopes member countries will find it facilitates and contributes to their conduct of national agricultural censuses so as to advance their qualified knowledge of the agricultural sector.

The Director
Statistics Division


CONTENTS

  • INTRODUCTION
    • Paragraphs
  • CHAPTER 1. CENSUS LEGISLATION
    • Introduction 1.1-1.3
    • Main features of census legislation 1.4
    • Juridical basis of agricultural census legislation 1.5
    • Authority for the promulgation and execution of legislation 1.6-1.7
    • Scope of census legislation 1.8-1.10
    • Contact with the respondent and obligatory collaboration 1.11-1.14
    • Confidentiality of information and penalties 1.15-1.16
    • Annex: Example of law (Canada) 1.17
  • CHAPTER 2. CENSUS COMMITTEE
    • Composition of the committee 2.1-2.2
    • Main responsibilities and functions 2.3
    • Establishment of sub-committees and working groups 2.4
    • Establishment of provincial committees 2.5
    • Other boards/committees 2.6
  • CHAPTER 3. WORK PLAN, BUDGET AND EXPENDITURE CONTROL
    • The work plan 3.1-3.5
    • The financial outline 3.6-3.9
    • Preparation of the budget 3.10-3.12
    • Review of the work plan, the budget and frequency 3.13-3.20
  • CHAPTER 4. CENSUS STAFF
    • Introduction 4.1-4.2
    • Census coordinator 4.3
    • Members of the census office 4.4-4.8
    • Field staff 4.9-4.10
    • Enumerators 4.11-4.15
    • Supervisors 4.16-4.20
    • Organizational aspects 4.21-4.23
  • CHAPTER 5. CARTOGRAPHIC PREPARATION
    • Introduction 5.1-5.7
    • Purpose of maps 5.8
    • Exploration of existing map resources inventory 5.9
    • Types of maps used 5.10
    • Timing of cartographic preparation 5.11-5.13
    • Computer-assisted cartography 5.14
  • CHAPTER 6. THE SURVEY DESIGN
    • Objectives of agricultural censuses and surveys 6.1-6.4
    • Sample design and survey design 6.5-6.8
    • Complete enumeration censuses versus censuses carried out on a sample basis 6.9
    • Advantages of carrying out a census on the basis of complete enumeration 6.10-6.14
    • Disadvantages of carrying out a census on the basis of complete enumeration 6.15-6.17
    • Factors for consideration in choosing between a complete or a sample census 6.18-6.21
    • Main types of sample designs for agricultural censuses 6.22
    • List sample designs 6.23-6.25
    • Data collection procedures for list sample designs 6.26
    • Area sample designs 6.27-6.29
    • Data collection procedures for area sample designs 6.30-6.32
    • Estimation procedures in area sample designs with segments that
    • have recognizable physical boundaries 6.33-6.36
    • The weighted segment estimation method 6.37-6.38
    • The open segment estimation method 6.39-6.40
    • Multiple frame sample designs 6.41-6.44
    • Choice of sample design 6.45-6.49
    • Multiple frame designs versus area sample designs 6.50
    • Multiple frame designs versus list sample designs 6.51-6.52
    • Other uses of sampling techniques 6.53-6.54
  • CHAPTER 7. PREPARATION OF THE FRAMES
    • Definition of frame 7.1-7.4
    • Practical approaches of frames 7.5-7.8
    • The frame of a census conducted by complete enumeration 7.9-7.20
    • Construction of the frame using the population and housing census 7.21-7.35
    • The frame of a census conducted by sample enumeration 7.36
    • Preparation of the frames for list sample designs 7.37-7.48
    • Preparation of the frames for area sample designs 7.49-7.50
    • Preparation of the frames for area sample designs with segments that have recognizable physical boundaries 7.51-7.57
    • Preparation of the frames for area sample designs with segments that coincide with the land of agricultural holdings 7.58
    • Preparation of the frames for multiple frame sample designs 7.59-7.61
    • Geographic Information Systems 7.62
  • CHAPTER 8. CENSUS QUESTIONNAIRE
    • Development of the census questionnaire 8.1-8.20
    • Census questionnaire working group 8.21-8.24
    • Use of questionnaires developed in other countries 8.25
    • Tabulation plan 8.26
    • Processing the questionnaire 8.27-8.37
    • Testing of census questionnaires 8.38
  • CHAPTER 9. TABULATION PLAN
    • Introduction 9.1-9.5
    • Talk to the users 9.6-9.7
    • Data processing and evaluation 9.8
    • Amount of tabulation for administrative units and the
    • limitations due to sampling 9.9-9.12
    • Preparation of the tabulation plan 9.13-9.21
    • Cross-tabulations 9.22-9.34
    • Presentation of the tabulation plan 9.35-9.39
  • CHAPTER 10. CENSUS PUBLICITY
    • Organization of publicity campaign 10.1-10.7
    • Types of media 10.8-10.9
    • Timing, duration and frequency of campaign 10.10-10.11
    • Other possible action to obtain support and cooperation of holders 10.12
    • Examples of media 10.13-10.18
  • CHAPTER 11. INSTRUCTION MANUALS
    • Purpose of the instruction manuals 11.1-11.2
    • Timely preparation of manuals 11.3
    • Authors of the instruction manuals 11.4-11.5
    • Presentation of the instruction manuals 11.6
    • Format of the instruction manuals 11.7-11.11
    • Contents of the instruction manuals 11.12-11.15
    • Manual for the enumerator 11.16-11.18
    • Manual for the supervisor 11.19-11.26
    • Training of enumerators 11.27-11.29
    • Intensity of supervision 11.30-11.32
    • Authority of the supervisors 11.33
    • How to solve the difficulties of the enumerators 11.34-11.38
    • Manual for the provincial coordinators 11.39-11.44
  • CHAPTER 12. TRAINING PROGRAMME
    • Introduction 12.1-12.6
    • Training at international centres 12.7-12.10
    • Training at national centres 12.11-12.12
    • Duration and content of enumerator training courses 12.13-12.17
    • Duration and content of supervisor training courses 12.18-12.19
    • Use of training aids 12.20-12.25
    • Training in writing inspection reports 12.26-12.27
  • CHAPTER 13. PRE-TEST SURVEYS AND PILOT CENSUSES
    • Introduction 13.1-13.2
    • Pre-test surveys 13.3-13.4
    • The pilot census 13.5-13.7
    • Concepts and definitions 13.8
    • Estimating resource requirements 13.9-13.11
    • Frame 13.12-13.13
    • Questionnaire 13.14-13.18
    • Training of enumerators and supervisors 13.19
    • Methods of data collection 13.20-13.24
    • Sampling design and sample size 13.25-13.27
    • Data processing 13.28-13.31
  • CHAPTER 14. CENSUS ENUMERATION
    • Introduction 14.1-14.3
    • Time reference 14.4-14.5
    • Duration and period of enumeration 14.6-14.12
    • Control of census operations and time schedule 14.13-14.15
    • Methods of enumeration 14.16-14.27
    • Some tips on interviewing 14.28-14.37
    • Special problems of census enumeration 14.38-14.59
    • Supervision of field work 14.60
    • Procedure for collecting and forwarding completed questionnaires 14.61
  • CHAPTER 15. ORGANIZATION OF FIELD WORK
    • Department responsible 15.1-15.3
    • Provincial offices and their work 15.4-15.8
    • Census field staff 15.9-15.11
    • General organization of field staff 15.12-15.17
    • Supervisory work and staff 15.18-15.22
    • Enumeration work and staff 15.23-15.26
    • General suggestions for preparing the interview 15.27-15.29
  • CHAPTER 16. QUALITY CHECKS AND POST-ENUMERATION SURVEYS
    • Introduction 16.1-16.4
    • Sources of non-sampling errors 16.5-16.20
    • Checking census tables against other data 16.21-16.23
    • Supervision and post-enumeration check 16.24
    • Purpose of the post-enumeration survey 16.25-16.29
    • Design of the post-enumeration survey 16.30
    • Method of data collection in the post-enumeration survey 16.31-16.32
    • Presentation of errors detected in the post-enumeration survey 16.33-16.40
  • CHAPTER 17. DATA PROCESSING
    • Prior experiences 17.1-17.4
    • Hardware 17.5-17.11
    • Software 17.12-17.19
    • Purpose of checking, editing and coding data 17.20-17.24
    • Data processing activities 17.25-17.27
    • Monitoring and control of questionnaires 17.28-17.29
    • Checking (manual editing) and coding 17.30-17.36
    • Data entry and verification 17.37-17.41
    • Data entry alternatives 17.42-17.43
    • Computer editing and coding 17.44-17.49
    • Imputation 17.50-17.53
    • Storage and security 17.54-17.55
    • Tabulation 17.56
    • Calculation of sampling errors and other analysis 17.57-17.58
    • Testing computer programmes 17.59-17.60
  • CHAPTER 18. DISSEMINATION PROGRAMME
    • Introduction 18.1-18.3
    • Informing the users 18.4-18.7
    • The publication plan 18.8-18.9
    • Preliminary results (report) 18.10-18.16
    • Final report 18.17-18.22
    • Atlas 18.23-18.24
    • Technical report 18.25-18.27
    • Report on quality checks and post-enumeration surveys 18.28-18.29
    • Other kinds of dissemination 18.30
  • GLOSSARY