FAO STATISTICAL DEVELOPMENT SERIES
PROGRAMME FOR THE WORLD CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE 2000
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
PROPOSED CENSUS ITEMS
This chapter contains the proposed census items, and their definitions. The items are arranged in ten sections. Naturally, not all the proposed items are applicable to any one country. Countries must decide which of the proposed items are relevant to their own conditions and data requirements, but should pay particular attention to those main items which are recommended to receive priority. These items are considered essential for national and international purposes and are marked with an asterisk (*). The WCA 2000 Programme for the first time proposes census items to assist countries in meeting data needs for environmental issues. These items are marked "#".
5.1 This chapter contains the proposed census items, the information to be collected and the definitions and explanatory remarks. "Census items" refer to specific information on certain characteristics. They are arranged in ten categories:
|03||Demographic and Anthropometric Characteristics|
|05||Land and Water|
|08||Machinery and Equipment|
|09||Buildings and Other Structures|
5.2 Following the practice of previous census Programmes, to assist countries in deciding upon priorities among the proposed census items, an asterisk (*) is placed before those which are considered essential for national and international purposes. New to the WCA 2000 are census items to assist countries in meeting environmental issues. Items with environmental implications are marked "#". It should be recognized that many of these items are difficult to collect during the census enumeration and may require special qualified training and instruments and, perhaps, specific surveys.
5.3 Definitions and explanations of concepts are generally the same as those used in earlier Programmes. Most definitions relate exclusively to agricultural statistics. Other general definitions are those recommended by other United Nations agencies to ensure harmony between census results and data collected through other sources.
5.4 A time reference is provided for each item, usually occurring within the census reference year. Countries may wish to alter these time references to suit their individual conditions. With few exceptions, the time references are either the day of enumeration (generally for inventory items) or the agricultural year (generally for continuing activities). The term day of enumeration should be interpreted as the date of the actual interview with the respondent, or a date near it.
Category 01: Identification
5.5 Category 01 identifies various reference points of interest in the agricultural census: holding, holder, head of the household of the holder and respondent, in case information is collected from somebody other than the holder. The time reference for the items in Category 01 is the day of enumeration.
5.6 Proposed items:
5.7 Holding - The holding definition is basically the same as used in previous Programmes. An agricultural holding is an economic unit of agricultural production under single management comprising all livestock kept and all land used wholly or partly for agricultural production purposes, without regard to title, legal form, or size. Single management may be exercised by an individual or household, jointly by two or more individuals or households, by a clan or tribe, or by a juridical person such as a corporation, cooperative or government agency. The holding's land may consist of one or more parcels, located in one or more separate areas or in one or more territorial or administrative divisions, providing the parcels share the same production means utilized by the holding, such as labour, farm buildings, machinery or draught animals. The requirement of sharing the same production means utilized by the holding is necessary if the various parcels are to be considered as components of one economic unit. Definition of classes of agricultural activities and explanatory notes are given in Appendix 2 ( UN 1990, pp. 71-72).
5.8 Economic units engaged solely in the following economic activities are not considered agricultural holdings and are therefore excluded from the census:
5.9 The following additional points relate to the identification of a holding:
5.10 Holding address - The holding location should be given in detail on the census questionnaire. If the holding is located in a village or hamlet, the village or hamlet name and administrative area should be recorded. This is essential for tabulating results by administrative units or agroecological zones. It will also facilitate enumeration control, subsequent verification, follow-up sample surveys, etc. If the holding comprises two or more parcels, special care is required in describing the holding location. Generally, the location of the parcel containing the farm buildings or other farm structures and the main machinery or equipment may be designated as the holding location. In many cases, the holder's residence may be suitable as the holding location description. If resources are available, it is becoming most important to geo-reference holdings with use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS); it is advisable to begin to move in this direction to enable further uses of census data, mainly through Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
5.11 Holder - The holder is a civil or juridical person who makes major decisions regarding resource use and exercises management control over the agricultural holding operation. The holder has technical and economic responsibility for the holding and may undertake all responsibilities directly, or delegate responsibilities related to daytoday work management to a hired manager. See legal status of holder (paragraph 5.16) and hired manager (paragraph 5.22 for further explanation.)
5.12 Enumerators must be trained to be aware that the holder is not always the legal owner of the land nor, necessarily, the oldest male in a household. The person making the major decisions regarding resource use - deciding what and when to plant, what animals to breed, when to cultivate crops and when to harvest crop or livestock items - may be a junior or female member of the household. Identifying the holder based on custom for the area, administrative records, or age and sex may distort the final results and lead to incorrect analysis, particularly with regard to holders by sex and age.
5.13 Respondent - The respondent is the person from whom data are collected about the statistical unit.
Category 02: General Characteristics
5.14 Category 02 covers the legal status of the holder, the concept of a hired manager, and integration of the holding with other economic units. The time reference for items on economic activities and purpose of production is the agricultural year. For other items, the time reference is the day of enumeration.
5.15 Proposed items:
(Note: * and # See "essential items" paragraph 5.2)
5.16 Legal status of holder - The term legal status is not necessarily confined to the holder's legal characteristics; it concerns broader aspects of identifying specific types of holdings. Two types are first differentiated: private and government; then a further disaggregation of private holders is provided. In most cases, the private holder is an individual, but there may be more than one holder in a given household, each operating a separate holding. If the agricultural operations carried out and commodities produced by different household members are pooled, it is more practical to treat them as one holding. This condition prevails in some regions as a kind of traditional agriculture. In extended households and composite households (defined in paragraphs 5.285.31) it is more convenient to identify several holders. The pooling of various holdings operated by members of the same household, or splitting a household into separate households (each corresponding to one holding), avoids double counting of household members for data collected on the holder's household (see paragraph 5.26).
5.17 Where two or more members of the same household jointly operate the same holding, the holder is considered to be the household. It is possible that a household member who jointly operates such a holding may also be the sole holder of another holding operated independently of other household members.
5.18 When two or more individuals of different households jointly operate a holding, they should each be recorded as a joint holder; separate data should be collected for the household of each joint holder.
5.19 Juridical persons, such as a corporation or cooperative, are entities separate from the real persons who form them and they should be defined within the context of national laws and customs. In most countries, joint stock companies constitute typical examples of corporations. Cooperatives include several kinds of organizations in which the principles of individual, joint ownership, or leasehold are combined to various degrees.
5.20 Private holders not specified in any of the above classes should be identified separately. Examples are tribes, clans, private schools and religious institutions other than collective monastic orders or their equivalent.
5.21 Government holdings are operated by officers of a central or local government directly or through a special body.
5.22 Hired manager A hired manager is a civil or juridical person who takes technical and administrative responsibility to manage a holding on a holder's behalf. Responsibilities are limited to making daytoday decisions to operate the holding, including managing and supervising hired labour. Wages may be paid in cash and/or kind. A hired manager who shares economic and financial responsibilities in addition to managing the holding should be considered a holder or a joint holder.
5.23 Enterprise Enterprise is the legal entity or family of legal entities owning or controlling a number of establishments and is defined as: "An institutional unit or the smallest combination of institutional units that encloses and directly or indirectly controls all necessary functions to carry out its production activities" (UN 1990, p. 20).
5.24 Economic activities of an enterprise An enterprise may be engaged in two or more economic activities of which agriculture is only one.
5.25 Purpose of production - Enumerators should elicit whether the purpose of production is mainly for sale or home consumption, and record the response. If the respondent needs help in providing a response, "mainly" means more than half of the agricultural production of the holding.
Category 03: Demographic Characteristics
5.26 Category 03 describes the holder and holder's household members. Items are proposed for holdings operated by: an individual; a household composed of two or more persons; and two or more individuals of different households or two or more households. Where holdings are operated by two or more individuals of different households or by two or more households, data on the total number of household members and age and sex of household members should be recorded separately for each of the joint holders. For tabulations by sex and age of the holder, one of the joint holders must be identified as the senior holder. Duplication should be avoided when collecting data from joint holders, as some may also operate another holding separately or jointly with others. (See paragraphs 5.165.18). The time reference for items in Category 03 is the day of enumeration.
5.27 Proposed items:
"The concept of household is based on the arrangements made by persons, individually or in groups, for providing themselves with food or other essentials for living. A household may be either (a) a oneperson household, that is, a person who makes provision for his or her own food or other essentials for living without combining with any other person to form part of a multiperson household, or (b) a multiperson household, that is, a group of two or more persons living together who make common provision for food or other essentials for living. The persons in the group may pool their incomes and have a common budget to a greater or lesser extent; they may be related or unrelated persons or a combination of both. Households usually occupy the whole, part of, or more than one housing unit but they may also be found living in camps, boarding houses or hotels or as administrative personnel in institutions, or they may be homeless. Households consisting of extended families that make common provision for food or of potentially separate households with a common head, resulting from polygamous unions, or households with vacation or other second homes may occupy more than one housing unit. Homeless households are defined as those households without a shelter that would fall within the scope of living quarters." (UN 1980, p.50)
5.29 Various household types must be explained, particularly the extended household, due to the possibility of more than one holding per household. The United Nations recommends a household classification based on the family nucleus. The family refers to "those members of the household who are related, to a specified degree, through blood, adoption or marriage". (UN 1980, p.72) A household may contain more than one family. A family nucleus consists of one of the following types (each of which must consist of persons living in the same household): (a) a married couple without children; (b) a married couple with one or more nevermarried children; (c) a father with one or more nevermarried children; or (d) a mother with one or more nevermarried children.
5.30 The following household types are identified:
5.31 In rural areas, particularly in developing countries, a onetoone correspondence between a household and a holding is quite common. Thus households serve to identify holdings. This is thecase particularly in developing countries. The number of households whose members operate separate holdings, or the number of holdings operated by two or more persons belonging to different households is few but nevertheless exists. When considering the relationship between a household and a holding it is important to remember that the former is a complex socioeconomic unit, while the latter is a simple economic unit. As such, when studying the holding related to a rural household, whose head is the holder with some household members participating in the work of the holding, it is recommended to consider:
5.32 Head of household - The head of household is the person (male or female) in the household acknowledged as head by the other members. The head has primary authority and responsibility for household affairs. However, in cases where such authority and responsibility are not vested in one person, special rules may be needed to identify the head of household (UN 1980, p.70).
5.33 Age Age is the time interval between birth date and census date, expressed in completed calendar years.
5.34 Education - Education can be classified as follows:
5.35 Marital status - Marital status can be classified as follows:
Category 04: Employment
5.36 Category 04 caters on a limited scale for employment data pertaining to members of the holder's household and other agricultural workers on the holding. Items are proposed for holdings operated by an individual, a household composed of two or more persons, two or more individuals of different households or two or more households. Other holdings are excluded. Items concerning the holder's household identify members who are economically active and a broad indication of their contribution to the work on the holding. Items on holder's occupation(s) identify holders having other occupation(s) in addition to being a holder. Data on employment of agricultural workers, other than the holder's household, provide the means for classifying holdings by hired agricultural workers.
5.37 Proposed items:
5.38 The time reference for Category 04 items, except those relating to number of permanent workers, is the agricultural year. A long reference period is necessary as work on a holding is seasonal with uneven demands within the season. There are periods when the work is intensive and others when it is almost nonexistent depending on weather conditions; farmers may wait for rain or other favourable conditions. The census emphasis is on the source of labour inputs rather than volume of employment. The time reference for the number of permanent agricultural workers by sex is the day of enumeration.
5.39 Economically active/Not economically active An economically active person is a person of either sex above a specified age working at a job or seeking work for pay or profit. These specifications for an economically active person are further elaborated in the following paragraphs (UN 1980, add. 1, Page 9).
5.40 The minimum age limit for economically active persons should be set in accordance with conditions in each country, but should not be set higher than 15 years. A lower minimum age limit will normally be appropriate in developing countries where it is customary for younger children to participate in agricultural work. To facilitate international statistical comparisons, tabulations should distinguish between persons under 15 years and those above. A separate tabulation for persons under ten years of age is recommended where a country's minimum age limit is below ten years.
5.41 Economically active population comprises persons employed and unemployed during the reference period. Employed comprises all persons, including unpaid family workers, who worked during the reference period, or who had a job in which they previously worked, but from which they were temporarily absent because of illness or injury, industrial disputes, vacation or other leave, or temporary interruption of work for such reasons as bad weather, mechanical breakdown or production requirements.
5.42 Unemployed comprises all persons not working during the reference period, but seeking work for pay or profit, including those who have never worked before. Persons not seeking work during the reference period because of temporary illness, previous arrangements to start a new job subsequent to the reference period, or on temporary or indefinite layoff without pay, are also included. It is consistent with international standards to include as unemployed persons available for work but not actively seeking work because they believe no jobs are available (UN 1980, add. 1, page 13).
5.43 Unpaid family workers who constitute a subset of employed persons require special mention. The United Nations defines an unpaid family worker as "usually a person who works, without pay, in an economic enterprise operated by a related person living in the same household. Where it is customary for young persons, in particular, to work without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a related person who does not live in the same household, the requirement of living in the samehousehold may be eliminated" (UN 1980, Add.1, p. 19). Strict application of the minimum working requirement (at least one third of the normal working hours) for unpaid family workers in agriculture is not recommended; otherwise a large number of people, including many female workers, dividing their working time between study or housework and work on the holding, may be excluded from the economically active population. Each country should determine the minimum requirement for the amount of time worked on the holding by a member of the holder's household during the reference period, to determine whether the member should be considered to have worked on the holding or not. Members who worked on the holding are part of the economically active population.
5.44 To classify members of the holder's household into economically active and not economically active, the general principle is that participation in an economic activity should always take precedence over participation in a noneconomic activity. Hence, employed and unemployed persons should be excluded from the not economically active population. For example, students or home makers are classified as economically active if they participate in an economic activity during the reference period. Similarly, persons receiving pensions consequent to retirement from one job but who are, at the same time, working at another job, should be considered economically active.
5.45 The population not economically active comprises all persons whose status during the reference period was neither employed nor unemployed, as previously defined. It comprises the following functional categories:
5.46 Occupation Occupation refers to the kind of work performed during the reference period by the person employed/self-employed (or the kind of work done previously, if unemployed), irrespective of the industry or employment status. For persons reporting more than one occupation, main occupation is determined as either the occupation on which most time was spent during the period, or the occupation which was most remunerative during the period. Occupation normally applies to economically active persons only.
5.47 Occupations are classified in the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88), issued by the International Labour Office (ILO 1990), into the following Major Groups:
5.48 Work in agricultural activities is included in major groups 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 but most persons in rural areas report occupations belonging to groups 6 and 9. The Major Groups are divided into Minor Groups described in detail in the Standard Classification of Occupation (ILO 1990). Whenassigning detailed occupation coding for occupations according to local conditions, countries are urged to use the Minor Groups (or subsets of them) in order to provide internationally comparable classifications on agricultural work.
5.49 Group 6, skilled agricultural workers, includes workers whose "tasks require the knowledge and experience necessary to produce farm products" (ILO 1990, p. 6). These may be further subdivided into minor groups relating to their type of activities.
5.50 Group 9, elementary occupations, covers workers whose "occupations require the limited knowledge and experience necessary to perform mostly simple and routine tasks, involving the use of hand-held tools and in some cases considerable physical effort and with few exceptions only limited personal initiative or judgement. Tasks include: digging and shovelling; loading and unloading; raking, pitching and stocking hay; watering and weeding; picking fruit and other crops; feeding, watering and cleaning animals; etc." (ILO 1990, p. 7 and 258).
5.51 Permanent and occasional agricultural workers A permanent agricultural worker is a person whose services are utilized regularly and continuously during the agricultural year for agricultural work on the holding. In some countries the total number of days worked during the agricultural year (normally six months or more) distinguishes a permanent from an occasional worker. However, a permanent worker may actually work less than six months during the agricultural year, especially in crop production in countries with one crop season. Countries should determine the minimum number of working days or months in accordance with their particular agricultural and other relevant conditions. Permanent agricultural workers on the holding may engage in other work, especially during periods when no significant agricultural work is undertaken. An occasional worker is a person working one or more times during the agricultural year who is not expected to work regularly or continuously on the holding.
Category 05: Land and Water
5.52 Category 05 covers the basic indicators relating to the land and water resources of the holding. Items are presented in two subdivisions: 051 includes holding level items; whereas 052 items relate to individual parcels. Some countries may prefer to collect all data at the holding level. This approach results in a simplified questionnaire, but places an additional burden on enumerators who may themselves have to aggregate the figures for each parcel.
5.53 Proposed items:
5.54 The time reference for all items in category 05, except irrigation during the year, in general refers to a specific date. The date may be the day of enumeration or another day close to it. If there are two or more crop seasons, the information should refer to a specific date during the major crop season of the census reference year. A departure from reliance on a specific date is sometimes necessary because land use should be classified according to priority of use. For example if a holder harvested land under temporary crops and this land is fallow on enumeration day, the area should be counted as land under temporary crops, not as land temporarily fallow.
5.55 Parcel The term parcel, as used here, should not be confused with the same term in cadastral work. A holding parcel is any piece of land entirely surrounded by other land, water, road, forest, etc. not forming part of the holding. A parcel may consist of one or more fields adjacent to each other. A field is a piece of land in a parcel separated from the rest of the parcel by easily recognizable demarcation lines, such as paths, cadastral boundaries and/or hedges. A field may consist of one or more plots. A plot is a part or whole of a field on which a specific crop or crop mixture is cultivated.
5.56 Parcel location For ease of identification, the parcel location should be described in accordance with the most common practice in each country. Using a Global Positioning System (GPS) for locating the holding (see 5.10) may be also helpful for further uses and particularly when returning to the field for quality control or checking on enumerators.
5.57 Total area of holding This is obtained by summing the areas of each parcel making up the holding. Land owned by the holder but rented to others should not be included in the total area of the holding. The farmyard and land occupied by farm buildings should be included. The land area of the holder's house is also included in total area of holding if the house is located on the holding (and not, for example, in a residential area of a nearby village or town), and is used solely for residential purposes. The total area of a holding based on shifting cultivation (see paragraph 5.85 for definition of shifting cultivation) should include the area under crops during the reference period and the area prepared for cultivation but not sown or planted at the time of enumeration. Land abandoned prior to the reference period should be excluded. Holders having access to communal grazing land should not include their estimated share of such land in the total area of holding. The total area of holding should be equal to the total land area under various classes of use.
5.58 Gross and net area Gross area refers to all land area under the respective landuse classes, including uncultivated patches, bunds, footpaths, ditches, headlands, shoulders, and shelterbelts. Net area, if required, can be obtained by deducting these areas from the gross area.
5.59 Land Tenure Land tenure refers to arrangements or rights under which the holder holds or uses holding land. Land rented out is not considered to be a part of the holding. A holding may be operated under one or more tenure forms, with each parcel normally operated under one tenure form. All data regarding land tenure should be collected for the same time reference.
5.60 Area owned - Area owned is the holding area for which the holder possesses title of ownership and has the right to determine the nature and extent of its use. It does not include area owned but rented to others.
5.61 Area held in ownerlike possession - Comprises the land area held under conditions which enable it to be operated as if owned by the holder, without possessing an ownership title. It does not include area held in ownerlike possession but rented to others. Some common types of ownerlike possession include:
5.62 Area rented from others The total area of all holding parcels rented or leased by the holder from other persons, usually for a limited time period. Rental arrangements may take different forms:
(a)Land rented for an agreed sum of money and/or produce with land administration, management and operation generally being the holder's responsibility, i.e. the holder is the lessee.
(b)Land rented for a share of the produce (in exceptional cases an equivalent in money), the share amount depending on local conditions and type of agriculture involved with technical responsibility for management lying exclusively with the holder or shared, to a limited degree, with the landlord if the latter contributes tools, fertilizers, or other aids and with holder and landlord sharing the economic risks.
(c)Land rented in exchange for services - the usufruct being granted to the holder instead of wages. Two examples are: agricultural labourer operates a piece of land in return for which he must work, unpaid, for the landlord for a certain number of days; and holder is granted land use in partial payment for services to government, religious organization or other institution.
(d)Land operated under other rental arrangements such as areas of usufructuary mortgages and land operated gratuitously (namely, granted rent free).
5.63 Area operated on a squatter basis Total land area operated by holder without ownership title and without paying rent while retaining total usufruct. Land occupied by squatters may be private or public property occupied without owner's consent, sometimes tolerated, particularly in public domain.
5.64 Area operated under tribal or traditional tenure forms Land in this category is held with joint or communal use based on traditional or tribal conditions. This tenure form may be important in countries where land is held on a tribal, village, kindred, or clan basis with certain individual rights held by virtue of membership in the social unit. Land title, often vested in the tribal chief, is communal in character.
5.65 Area operated under other forms of tenure Tenure forms other than those previously described may be common or limited in some countries. Examples are: land operated under transitory tenure forms, such as trusteeship (operated by trustee); land received by members of collective holdings for individual use; or land under inheritance proceedings.
5.66 Land use - Land use provides a classification of the holding according to the activity which is directly related to the land, makes use of its resources or has an impact upon it.
5.67 Arable land - This includes all land used in most years for growing temporary crops, which would normally be so used in the census year but which is lying fallow or has not been sown due to unforseen circumstances. Arable land does not include land under permanent crops or land under protective cover. Arable land is not meant to indicate land that is potentially cultivable but is not normally cultivated.
5.68 Land under temporary crops in open air This includes all land in the open air used for crops with a less than oneyear growing cycle, which must be newly sown or planted for furtherproduction after the harvest. Some crops that remain in a field more than one year may also be considered as temporary crops: asparagus, strawberries, pineapples, bananas, and sugar cane, for example, may be grown as annual crops in some areas. Such crops should be classified either as temporary or permanent crops according to the custom in the country. Vegetables, flowers, bulbs, and kitchen and market gardens, should also be included in this category. Alternatively, countries may wish to establish the class land under specialized cultivation for this land use type.
5.69 Land under temporary meadows and pastures This includes land temporarily cultivated with herbaceous forage crops for mowing or pasture. A period of less than five years should be considered as temporary to avoid practical difficulties when differentiating between temporary and permanent meadows. If country practice differs from this the country definition should be clearly indicated in census reports.
5.70 Land temporarily fallow This is land at prolonged rest before recultivation. Land remaining fallow for too long may acquire characteristics requiring it to be reclassified, such as permanent meadows and pastures (if used for grazing), or woodland or forest (if overgrown with trees that could be used for timber, firewood, etc.), or all other land (if it becomes wasteland). A maximum idle period should be specified - probably less than five years. Land is not considered temporarily fallow unless it has been, or is intended to be, kept at rest for at least one agricultural year. Land temporarily fallow should be distinguished from land abandoned by shifting cultivation; the former is part of the holding whereas the latter is not.
5.71 If census data are collected before sowing or planting has been completed, the area lying fallow at that time that will be put under crops soon afterwards should be classified by the crops to be sown or planted, and not as fallow land.
5.72 Fallow land temporarily used for grazing should be classified as fallow if the land is normally used for cultivating temporary crops.
5.73 All other arable land This includes all rotation land not put to the uses mentioned above during the reference year, such as arable land temporarily damaged by floods, land prepared for cultivation but not sown due to unforeseen circumstances, etc.
5.74 Land under protective cover This is land under structures with protective roof of glass, plastic or other material. Such land may be used for both temporary and permanent crops.
5.75 Land under permanent crops in open air This includes land cultivated with longterm crops which do not have to be replanted for several years; land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such as roses and jasmine; and nurseries (except those for forest trees, which should be classified under woodland or forest). A nursery is a piece of land where young plants are cultivated for transplanting and/or sale. Permanent meadows and pastures are excluded from land under permanent crops. Care should be exercised when reporting land under permanent crops in cases of associated crops.
5.76 Land under permanent meadows and pastures This includes land used permanently (for five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, through cultivation or naturally (wild prairie or grazing land). Permanent meadows and pastures on which trees and shrubs are grown should be recorded under this heading only if the growing of forage crops is the most important use of the area.
5.77 Cultivated permanent meadow and pasture areas should be recorded separately from naturally grown permanent meadows and pasture areas (see also land under temporary meadows and pastures, paragraph 5.69).
5.78 Woodland or forest This includes woodlot or timber tracts, natural or planted, constituting part of the holding which have or will have value as wood, timber, other forest products or for protection. Forest tree nurseries should be included in this category. Rows, belts and small clumps of trees, bamboo and other woody vegetation should be included in woodland and forest.
5.79 All other land This includes all other land on the holding, not elsewhere specified, whether or not potentially productive. It covers two land classes: unused and undeveloped land potentially productive for agriculture or forestry, but not yet developed; and land on the holding not elsewhere specified.
5.80 Unused and undeveloped potentially productive land This includes uncultivated land, comprising part of the holding but not included under the preceding headings, producing some kind of utilizable vegetable product, such as reeds or rushes for matting and bedding for livestock, wild berries, plants and fruit, or land which could be brought into crop production with little more effort in addition to that required in common cultivation practices.
5.81 Land in the holding not elsewhere specified This includes land occupied by buildings, parks and ornamental gardens, roads or lanes, open spaces needed for storing equipment and products, wasteland, land under water, and any other land not reported under previous classes.
5.82 Other classifications of land use There are additional classifications of land use not listed above. Countries that prefer to use these classifications or others should indicate the components to provide internationally comparable statistics. Some of the most common of these classifications are cropland, agricultural land, and cultivated land. Often these classifications will fit among the classifications recommended above. As an example:
Cropland is often defined as including all arable land (paragraph 5.67) plus land under permanent crops (paragraph 5.75). Cultivated land is used in some countries to include arable land plus the cultivated part of land under permanent meadows and pastures (paragraph 5.77). Agricultural land generally includes area in cropland plus the land under permanent meadows and pastures (paragraph 5.76). Productive land is the result of adding woodland or forest (paragraph 5.78) to agricultural land.
5.83 Irrigation Irrigation refers to purposely providing land with water, other than rain, for improving pastures or crop production. Uncontrolled land flooding by overflowing of rivers or streams is not considered irrigation. When rainwater or uncontrolled overflow from rivers and streams is collected and later used on the land for crop or pasture production, this is considered irrigation.
5.84 Drainage Drainage is the removal of excess water from land surface and/or the upper soil layer to make nonproductive wet land productive and wet land more productive.
5.85 Shifting cultivation Shifting cultivation is a land utilization method whereby a particular piece of land is cultivated for some years and then abandoned for a period sufficient for it to restore its fertility by natural vegetative growth before being recultivated. The distinguishing characteristic of shifting cultivation is that neither organic fertilizers nor manure are used to retain soil fertility. As a result cultivated land productivity steadily decreases and it becomes economically preferable to open up a new piece of land and abandon the existing one. Abandoned land usually takes a long time to regain fertility by natural processes. Shifting cultivation is a traditional, ecologically integrated method of land utilization, suitable for areas with low density of population. With increasing pressure on land, in some areas, holders move their dwellings when they shift to new land in order to be close to their holdings.
5.86 Soil characteristics - The soil characteristics, along with other factors such as climate, rainfall, and water availability, form an important basis for agricultural locational planning. Four basic characteristics which can be easily observed need to be recorded.
5.87 Soil degradation - Soil degradation can be described as a process by which one or more of the potential ecological functions of the soil are harmed. These functions relate to biomass production (nutrient, air and water supply, root support for plants) to filtering, buffering, storage and transformation (e.g. water, nutrients, pollutants), and to biological habitats and gene reserves. Soil degradation is defined as a process which lowers the current and/or future capacity of the soils to produce.
5.88 Two categories of soil degradation processes are recognized. The first group relates to displacement of soil material (i.e. soil erosion by water forces or by wind forces) and the other deals with soil deterioration in-situ, i.e. chemical (loss of nutrients and/or organic matters, salination, acidification, pollution) and physical (compaction, crusting and sealing, waterlogging, subsidence of organic soils) degradation. Soil degradation should be classified into four classes:
Category 06 Crops
5.89 Category 06 covers basic features of crop cultivation on the holding. These data include area under all temporary crops and area and number of trees for all permanent crops. The minimum data requested on fertilizers, pesticides and improved seed refer only to whether these were used on the holding for any crop. Data on crop production, quantity of fertilizers and pesticides used, area treated crop by crop, are normally covered by specialized sample surveys.
5.90 Proposed items:
5.91 Name of crops grown - For quick reference an alphabetical list of crops with botanical names is given in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a more detailed list of crops grouped into two broad classes, temporary and permanent. In Appendix 4, each crop class is subdivided by the enduse of crops, such as human consumption, industrial use or fodder. This crop list in Appendix 4 is not exhaustive nor do all crops listed apply to any one country. Countries may wish to expand or abridge the crop list, taking into account their agricultural practices.
5.92 The alphabetical crop list provides cross-referencing to the end use classification by including corresponding item numbers. There are cases where the placement is not obvious; some important examples are given below:
5.93 Different time references are proposed for various items of this category:
|Section Nº||Time reference|
5.94 Area harvested For a particular crop this refers to total area from which the crop is gathered. In certain regions, some temporary crops are grown more than once on the same land in the same agricultural year (see successive crops, paragraphs 5.975.98). In this case, the land is counted as many times as the crop is harvested to obtain area harvested for that crop. The area harvested for temporary crops should exclude uncultivated patches, bunds, footpaths, ditches, headlands, shoulders, shelterbelts, etc., if possible (see definition of gross and net area in paragraph 5.58).
5.95 Duplication should be avoided when counting areas under the same crop producing more than one product during the same agricultural year. For example, cotton produces both fibre and seed. In such cases the area harvested should be reported under the principal product. If the same area is also reported for the secondary product, then it is shown in brackets and omitted from the total area harvested.
5.96 Pure stand - This is a single crop cultivated alone in a field. A pure stand crop may be either temporary or permanent.
5.97 Successive crops The same crop, or different crops, may be grown and harvested successively on the same land several times during the agricultural year. Successive cropping isimportant in countries with more than one cropping season. The field, or parts of it, may be left fallow during one or more cropping seasons in the same agricultural year. The successive crop area should be reported for each crop separately each time the area is sown or planted during the agricultural year. Thus, if two different crops are grown successively on the same field, the field area will appear twice in the results (under each of the two crops concerned), or sometimes more in countries with having more than two cropping seasons. Similar multiple area counting will occur if the same crop is grown successively during the agricultural year. In these cases total harvested or sown area for the agricultural year may be, and usually is, larger than the total physical cropland holding area.
5.98 Successive harvests from the same standing crops (sugar cane, hay, etc.) should not be confused with successive cropping. Areas for the former should be reported once only. For the latter case, the same crop (such as rice) is sown or planted and harvested more than once during the agricultural year.
5.99 It is possible for two different holders to grow and harvest a crop from the same land area or parcel where successive crops are common. Successive crop areas grown and harvested by two holders operating in succession should be reported for each holder.
5.100 Crops cultivated simultaneously Different crops cultivated simultaneously on the same land can cause difficulties in ascertaining which part of the total area to ascribe to each crop. To determine the crop area harvested in mixed and associated crop cases no firm, single recommendation can be given. What follows are general guidelines.
5.101 Temporary crops, particularly grains, are grown and harvested as mixtures in some countries. It is best to treat a mixture of this kind as a single crop, without attempting to estimate the area under each crop. Individual crops in the mixture should be specified and the most important constituent crop or crops named. Mixed cereal grain crops, other mixed grain crops and mixed grasses grown for hay are examples.
5.102 For other crop mixtures it may be practicable and desirable to estimate the area which each crop would have covered had it been grown alone. Various methods are used, or can be devised, to estimate these areas, based on quantities of seed used for crops in the mixture, plant density in temporary or permanent crop mixtures compared with pure stand density, eye estimates of the proportions of area occupied by component crops (if distinguishable), number of plants or trees per area unit, etc. Countries should also use objective sampling methods for important estimates.
5.103 A crop planted between rows of another crop (e.g., sorghum and groundnuts between cotton rows, or groundnuts between maize or sorghum rows) is referred to as interplanted crops and may be differentiated from mixed temporary crops or associated crops. It is desirable to assign the interplanted crop area to individual crops in proportion to the area occupied by each crop. Yields of some interplanted crops may be as large as when grown alone (for example, sweet potatoes and maize, maize and peas or beans) but the total of area equivalents assigned to individual crops should be equal to the total area under the mixture, even if favourable interactions result in increased yields.
5.104 When both temporary and permanent crops are grown simultaneously in the same field, each crop is referred to as an associated crop. Associated crops should be distinguished from mixed crops as discussed above. The method used to assign areas under each associated crop may differ among countries due to prevailing agricultural practices. Difficulty in defining estimated area equivalents for mixture components may be encountered. Generally, for associated crops, net harvested areas are reported for temporary crop components, and estimated gross area for permanent crop components.
5.105 If the permanent crop is a compact plantation (see paragraph 5.107), total gross area may be assigned to it. Compact plantation areas on which associated temporary crops are also grown, are not considered arable land. When reporting land use in Category 05, gross area of compact plantations is assigned to the permanent crop. It is important to estimate net area equivalents under associated temporary crops in compact plantations to calculate aggregate crop area, when the temporary crops are harvested during the agricultural year.
5.106 Permanent crops of productive age This includes permanent crops already bearing fruit or otherwise productive. Most tree crops and some other permanent crops become productive after a certain age. Crops at that stage should be enumerated "of productive age" even if, due to meteorological conditions or other reasons, they have not yielded a harvest during the reference year. Senile or other trees of productive age, but no longer productive, should not be enumerated if it is possible to identify them.
5.107 Compact plantation This includes plants, trees and shrubs planted in a regular and systematic manner. Plants, trees or shrubs forming an irregular pattern but dense enough to permit data collection of area planted, are also considered compact plantation.
5.108 Scattered plants, trees and vines This includes plants, trees, vines and shrubs scattered or isolated so preventing adequate determination of the aggregate area occupied. Countries reporting the area under scattered trees should convert the total number of trees into area by using a standard number of trees per hectare.
5.109 Fertilizers - Fertilizers are mineral or organic substances, natural or manufactured, which are applied to soil, irrigation water or a hydroponic medium, to supply plants with the necessary nutrients. The term fertilizers applies to sources of plant nutrients which contain at least 5 percent of one or more of the three primary nutrients (N, P2O5, K20). The term fertilizers is often used in short for naming mineral fertilizers, as defined below. Products with less than 5 percent of combined plant nutrients are called plant nutrient sources.
5.110 Mineral fertilizers - Mineral fertilizers are those fertilizers that are manufactured, usually through an industrial process. Manufacturing entails mechanical enrichment, simple crushing or more elaborate chemical transformation of one or more raw materials. The term chemical fertilizers which is frequently used for these products is inadequate and misleading. It should be avoided. The term artificial fertilizers is even less appropriate. Compared to organic sources of plant nutrients mineral fertilizers are characterized by a higher plant nutrient content and a lower bulk.
5.111 Organic sources - Materials of organic origin, either natural or processed, can be used as sources of plant nutrients. The term organic fertilizers which is frequently used for organic sources of plant nutrients is not always justified as in some cases they fail to meet the minimum content of 5 percent of one or more of the three primary nutrients. This criterion would be met by some organic materials of animal origin - such as guano, bone meal, fish meal, blood - but would not apply to the more commonly used organic sources of nutrients such as manure, slurry, compost or sewage sludge.
5.112 The term manure is usually used in the sense of farmyard or animal manure which is a mixture of solid excreta of animals with litter used for their bedding. The term green manure describes fresh plant material which is locally produced and is worked into the soil without composting or digestion through animals. Slurry is a mixture of liquid and solid animal excreta, with or without dilution with water. Sludge is residual organic material derived from sewage. Compost consists of organic materials of animal, plant or human origin partially decomposed through fermentation; sometimes mineral fertilizers are added.
5.113 Pesticides These include insecticides, fungicides, fumigants, herbicides, rodenticides and various other materials, mostly synthetic chemicals produced in concentrated form but diluted for application with various substances such as water, talc, clays, kerosene, etc. They are used for mitigating, controlling or eliminating pests troublesome to crops or livestock.
Category 07: Livestock
5.114 Category 07 identifies the type of livestock system forming part of the holding and the livestock population at the time of the census.
5.115 Proposed items:
(Note: * See "essential items" paragraph 5.2)
5.116 The time reference for items in Category 07 is the day of enumeration.
5.117 Livestock system This refers to the general characteristics and practices of raising livestock. Four different systems are identified:
5.118 Livestock population The livestock population refers to animal numbers present on the holding on the reference date, regardless of ownership. It includes livestock temporarily on communal grazing land (see paragraph 5.9(h)), or in transit at enumeration time.
Category 08: Machinery and Equipment
5.119 Category 08 identifies machinery and equipment used on the holding, wholly or partly for agricultural production. All machinery and equipment used exclusively for nonagricultural purposes during the reference period are excluded. Only machinery and equipment in usable condition should be reported.
5.120 Proposed items:
5.121 The time reference for number of "stationary power producing machinery" is the day of enumeration. For data on other machinery and equipment which refer to use the time reference is the agricultural year.
5.122 Stationary machinery Machinery in a fixed place (e.g. grain mill) or transportable machine (grain thresher) which does not move while in use.
5.123 Short definitions follow on the most common forms of machinery:
5.124 Transport equipment Equipment used primarily for agricultural purposes to transport agricultural goods of the holding, members of the holder's household, or labourers and employees. Motor vehicles, such as jeeps, primarily used as tractors should be reported under tractors.
5.125 Office machinery and equipment This includes computers, calculators, typewriters and office equipment, including furniture. Machinery and equipment classified as fixed capital have a lifeuse of one year or more. Equipment of small value, such as office desk equipment and furnishings may be excluded from fixed capital.
5.126 Machinery and equipment source This indicates the means by which the holder has obtained the right to use the machinery and equipment.
Category 09: Buildings and Other Structures
5.127 Category 09 provides information on use of nonresidential buildings on the holding. The time reference is the day of enumeration.
5.128 Proposed items:
5.129 Buildings "A building is any independent freestanding structure comprising one or more rooms or other spaces, covered by a roof and usually enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundations to the roof. However, in tropical areas, a building may consist of a roof with supports only, that is, without constructed walls; in some cases, a roofless structure consisting of a space enclosed by walls may be considered a building" (UN 1980, p.232). A building may be used as living quarters or for industrial or storage purposes exclusively, or it may be partially used for both purposes.
5.130 Nonresidential buildings These are buildings entirely or primarily intended for agricultural use, such as warehouses, stores, stables, barns, office buildings, etc. Proposed Category 9 items cover only these buildings.
5.131 Use of nonresidential buildings The various use classes indicated refer to nonresidential buildings. A building used for more than one purpose should be recorded as used "for mixed or other purposes".
Category 10: Other Activities
5.132 Category 10 identifies holdings carrying out forestry, fishery and other activities simultaneously with agricultural activities.
5.133 Proposed items:
5.134 Time reference for items 101 (except 1013) is the day of enumeration; for items 102 and 1013 the time reference is the agricultural year.
5.135 Forest trees Forest trees are those grown for producing wood for industry, fuel, forage, protection or other purposes, but not included among trees grown as permanent crops, covered in Category 06. Forest trees include bamboo and other woody vegetation used for the abovelisted purposes.
5.136 Other aquatic animals and plants These include aquatic animals, other than fish, such as frogs, crabs, etc. and aquatic plants.
5.137 Aquaculture installations These include any water environment used for fishery activities in captivity.