89. Strategies: Gender bias in the design and implementation of rural development and land tenure initiatives, the limited participation of women in all types of rural organizations and institutional structures, the paucity of accurate or representative information on the socio-economic and political experiences of women, and the heightened poverty levels of rural women and women-headed households in the majority of the world's regions, lead to poverty eradication and land tenure initiatives that either exclude women from their benefits or are not sensitive to their needs and demands. In the Division's operational and normative work, the Division will: a) strengthen the capacity of selected institutions responsible for the formulation and execution of poverty eradication programmes and land tenure reforms to enable them to address gender issues and develop mechanisms for their effective identification in the policy design and formulation process; b) establish ways to increase the participation of women engaged in agricultural production and employment, in policy design and formulation exercises relating to poverty eradication and land tenure reform; c) promote women's increased access to land and poverty eradication initiatives and programmes through sustained emphases on these issues; d) support the development of policies and programmes that increase levels of adequately remunerated rural employment for women in both farm and non-farm sectors, and other rural development strategies and policies to improve rural women's living standards; e) support initiatives to increase women's access to the resources that allow fair and equal participation in policy and other decision-making processes (e.g. information, technologies, skills and knowledge). The Division will also emphasize the need to collect gender- disaggregated and WID-specific information, and will continue to be actively involved in its collation, analysis and dissemination.
90. Instruments: Ongoing and proposed activities in selected Member Nations and regions will include a WID component, through which a direct concern with issues relating to gender disparities and the unequal opportunities between men and women in relation to socio-economic livelihood and access to poverty eradication and land tenure reform programmes will be addressed directly. Selected activities employing methodologies directed at the diagnosis of the dynamics of agrarian systems in relation to rural poverty, the comparative advantages of differing land tenure arrangements and the identification of the conditions that permit rural producers to produce in a sustainable fashion, and the different "types" of rural producers will be broadened in order to provide information on WID-based inequalities and differences. Selected institution-building activities will incorporate a specific emphasis on the way in the which institutional performance impacts differentially upon rural men and women, and will seek to correct any disparities. Likewise, interventions concerned directly with rural settlement and land tenure reform will draw upon both conceptual and technical tools that direct attention to WID issues. These instruments will include improved data resources, innovative analytical approaches and a heightened conceptual awareness of gender-related issues. The continued development of the WCARRD database will strengthen the ability of FAO to direct attention at the paucity of WID-related information on issues relating to rural poverty and land tenure reform. Secondly, it will provide a vehicle for the dissemination of existing and new information on these issues to Member Nations and UN agencies.
92. Strategies: Gender bias in research and technology, the low delivery of extension services to women producers, the limited participation of young women in youth groups, inequities in women's access to agricultural education and employment, and the absence of gender issues in curricula and programmes of study, result in research, education, extension and technology that are either not accessible to women or are insensitive to their needs. The Division will: a) enhance the capacity of national agricultural research systems to address gender issues in research and technology; b) promote improved access for women to education and employment in agricultural education institutions; c) increase young women's access to rural youth programmes; d) support the formulation of policies, strategies and actions to increase employment of women in extension services; e) help empower rural women by enabling them to access available information, knowledge and skills and tap their potential for improved contributions to technology generation and dissemination; and f) promote gender-sensitive national communication policies and strategies and apply communication media and skills to enhance training activities for rural women.
93. Instruments: Research will be undertaken on a revision of the databases of national research and technology development institutions to incorporate gender-disaggregated data. The methodology used to address the technological needs and priorities of rural farmers will be revised to include gender-specific needs. Agricultural Education and Extension will develop prototype curricula, programmes of study and strategies for use by developing countries to improve women's access to and employment in agricultural education institutions in selected countries. A gender-disaggregated data base and directory of extension rural youth programmes will be developed. Policy advice will focus on: the preparation of country strategies, policies and actions to increase female student enrolment/employment in agricultural education and extension institutions; plans of action and guidelines to revise, update and reform curricula and programmes of study; and the development of strategies that incorporate gender issues in extension education programmes. Extension in-service training, materials, workshops and technical publications will be prepared to reflect gender issues. Gender-sensitive national communication policies and strategies will be formulated within selected projects. Audience research will help identify rural women's access to different media and their requirements for communications programmes. Women will be trained as rural communication specialists.
95. Strategies: The continued lack of attention to gender concerns in efforts to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural and rural development means that concerted efforts are still required to improve the integration of gender in all relevant areas of agriculture and rural development policy and programmes. The Division will take the lead role in encouraging actions, both from within and outside FAO, to overcome constraints and take advantage of opportunities to increase the involvement of rural women as beneficiaries of economic, social and political development. SDW will assist the FAO Steering Committee on Women in Development to coordinate the overall implementation of the Organization's Plan of Action for Women in Development and will actively collaborate with the Technical Divisions on the implementation of their respective WID Programmes of Actions, providing these Divisions with advice and technical assistance on the integration of gender concerns. SDW will be responsible for preparing biennial reports for the FAO Conference on Organization-wide progress on implementation of the Plan of Action. The Division will also coordinate with other UN agencies, governmental and non-governmental organizations on gender concerns. The work of the Integration of Women in Development Service (SDWW) will focus on five programmatic areas to: a) develop the research capabilities and participatory approaches at country level which are required to integrate WID/gender concerns into policies on agriculture and food security; b) continue to develop and utilize methodologies, tools and training-of-trainers activities to assist development partners in FAO and Member Nations to analyse and integrate socio-economic and gender analysis into the project and programme cycle (through the inter-agency SEGA Programme); c) to promote and support the collection, analysis, and dissemination of gender-disaggregated agricultural and rural development information, methods, statistics and indicators, together with the Statistics Division and the Rural Development and Agrarian Reform Division; d) act as an international catalyst in research, programming and policy development in the area of rural women, biodiversity, indigenous knowledge and environment, in coordination with the Plant Production and Protection Division and the Animal Production and Health Division, and e) continue the reorientation of home economics and agricultural extension to address issues of concern to rural women, together with the Research, Extension and Training Division. Special attention will be given to incorporating participatory approaches in the work of the Division and to ensuring that different participatory approaches are gender sensitive.
96. Within the framework of the Plan of Action for People's Participation, the People's Participation Service (SDWP) will increase the quantity and quality of data on women's participation in rural people's organizations, which will be used to raise awareness of women's roles in rural people's organizations and their contributions to sustainable development through these organizations. It will strengthen the organizational and leadership capacities of women acting through rural people's organizations. The Population Service (SDWO) will collect information and analyse the linkages between gender, population factors, and food security and the goals of sustainable development. The information will then be integrated into efforts to mainstream population concerns into the Organization's work.
97. Instruments: The Integration of Women in Development Service (SDWW) will develop and test at country level a framework for WID policy advice in the area of food security, consisting of policy research methodology linking macro-economic and social phenomena to farm households, as well as approaches for assuring a consultative, participatory process involving rural women in policy formulation. The Socio-economic and Gender Analysis (SEGA) training-of-trainers programme will continue to be developed and implemented with the collaboration of other UN agencies. Support and advice will be provided to the Statistics Division for their activities oriented towards improved availability of gender-disaggregated data on human resources through the World Programme of Agricultural Census, as well as to the Rural Development and Agrarian Reform Division for the development and dissemination of gender-disaggregated socio-economic indicators on human resources in agriculture and rural development. Further, the Service will establish an international network for the collection, compilation, evaluation and disseminate of methods for the generation of detailed qualitative and quantitative gender-disaggregated household and farm data on human resources in agriculture, prepare biannual reports on the state-of-the-art in this field, and hold an expert consultation on survey design for national level data collection on women and farm households, together with ESSS.
98. The Service will establish an international network on women, biodiversity, indigenous knowledge and environment, will carry out research on the relationships contributing to the erosion or reinforcement of women's access to and control over plant and animal genetic resources as well as women's knowledge and management of biodiversity for food security and sustainable development; and sponsor an Expert Consultation on these topics to provide policy advice to FAO for the development of policies and programmes at local, national and international levels, together with AGP and AGA.
99. Home economics training programmes will be reviewed to incorporate technical subject matters into curricula and agricultural extensions will be trained in gender analysis in several countries. Training material to enhance technical and managerial skills of women engaged in income-generating activities will be prepared and used by extension workers in various countries.
100. The People's Participation Service will develop and disseminate training materials, including audio-visuals, on the role of women in rural people's organizations. Cooperative laws and other legislation and policies governing rural people's right to organize and operate self-help groups will be reviewed with the intention of creating a more favourable climate for women's participation in rural people's organizations. The Population Service will carry out research on the interrelationships between gender and spatial and social mobility, and the impact of these phenomenon on food security and sustainable development. A system for disseminating this information within and outside FAO will be developed. Guidelines for integrating these issues into policy advice, programme planning, and project development activities will be developed and disseminated.
102. Strategies: Sustainable agriculture and rural development objectives need to be pursued with the full and vigorous participation of rural people - both women and men - and their communities. The capacity of local governments with regards to decision-making and the implementation of sustainable policies and programmes needs to be enhanced through the participation of all stakeholders, especially women, indigenous people, landless labourers and other major groups. Recognizing that, in the agricultural sector, development cannot be sustained without considering social needs and potentials, especially of women, increased attention will be given to gender issues and indicators in the Unit's activities. The development and use of appropriate indicators (including performance indicators) tailored to meet local requirements and circumstances, is essential to design and implement, as well as evaluate results of sustainable development programmes and projects. Sustainability indicators will cover, inter alia, social dimensions, namely the roles and needs of women in sustainable production and conservation of the natural environment.
103. Instruments: Gender indicators will be defined for inclusion in guidelines for Sustainability Analysis. A pamphlet on Women and Environment will be prepared to raise awareness of the issues and distributed to development agencies and Member Nations. Gender considerations will be incorporated in SARD training courses and in the Unit's mainstream work.
105. Strategies: While providing assistance to countries, the Division will ensure that due consideration be given to structures and heterogeneities that create market failures and distortions in factor and product markets, particularly to those that are gender-based and lead to inequitable distribution of the benefits of development. The Division will focus on major policy issues related to property rights, credit access, mobility in factor markets, services and organizations, institutions and constraints to socio-economic development imposed by differentiation in gender. Given the special emphasis on food security, attention will be given to analysing how agricultural and food policies affect women's time allocation, women's income control and their own as well as their family's health and nutritional status. The Division will also sensitise government staff involved in policy work, both at the central and sub-national levels, on the relevance of such analyses, and train them on associated analytical tools. This strategy will contribute to improve the assessment of the impact of past policies and help design policies more effective in achieving development objectives pursued by member countries.
106. Instruments: TCA will assess the impact of policies and identify measures to mitigate the negative effects of macroeconomic and sectorial reform programmes on the rural households, the poor and other vulnerable groups, with special reference to women. Special focus will be given to the analysis of policies aimed at promoting the socio-economic development of female-headed households. The terms of reference of the consultants will reflect such concerns. Training and other forms of capacity-building programmes will incorporate gender analysis in policy and planning through specially designed training materials and through case-studies. Attention will be given to ensuring adequate representation of women among the trainees.
108. Strategies: In agricultural investment projects, rural women often have limited participation as beneficiaries with full access to project resources, such as agricultural extension advice, credit, and other types of support, which can compromise the success and impact of these projects. The Investment Centre will intensify efforts to mainstream gender in agricultural investment project design. To this effect, Investment Centre projects will incorporate gender analysis in an increasing number of project preparation processes and ensure that appropriate design adaptations are made in light of that analysis. TCI will also monitor progress achieved in this area.
109. Instruments: Investment project preparation reports, which are the main output of Investment Centre work, will cover gender issues on a more systematic basis. Gender analysis will be applied in 100 percent of projects prepared by TCII on behalf of IFAD and for a targeted 33 percent for other financing institutions. Project report sheets will be revised to incorporate gender concerns. Mission leaders will be trained to spot gender issues and flag them for follow-up by the financing institution. Primary data on gender relations will be published periodically and gender analysis will be incorporated into Divisional field manuals and publications.
111. Strategies: The progress made in the Field Programme in improving rural women's status and wellbeing could be enhanced by the introduction of greater sensitivity to gender issues. TCO will seek to increase the participation of rural women in the Field Programme and improve capability for monitoring the responsiveness of FAO projects to their concerns. This will be accomplished by increasing the number of staff with gender expertise and further promoting the hiring of female professionals and consultants in field positions and missions. It will also involve overhauling current monitoring systems and databases to include indicators that adequately measure sensitivity to gender issues and improvement of rural women's status.
112. Instruments: The AGOMIS data base will be revised to ascertain the validity of present indicators, add indicators as required, expand the data base to cover the entire Field Programme, and establish the baseline against which activities and progress can be monitored. The present project coding system, the format of project progress reports and terminal reports, and Terms of Reference for project staff, will be revised to cover gender issues. Fellowship forms will be revised to encourage female candidates to apply, and project directors will be requested to inform their counterparts that a certain percentage of trainees should be women. The roster of female candidates and candidates with gender expertise will be expanded.
114. Strategies: The multiple roles and contributions of rural women to agricultural and rural development are often overlooked, and are not reflected in policies and programmes. The Division will promulgate a more positive image of rural women and publicize the wide range of their contributions to agriculture and rural development. This will include: breaking down stereotypes of rural women and replacing them with images of women and men working together; enhancing public understanding of the achievements and constraints of rural women in agriculture and rural development; and promoting models of rural women and women professionals that can serve as examples.
115. Instruments: Press releases and fact sheets on FAO WID initiatives targeted at news agencies and daily newspapers, and briefings for journalists that incorporate WID issues, will raise awareness and highlight advances and constraints in mainstreaming WID. Journalists will participate in missions to document progress achieved on the advancement of rural women. Radio and television programmes and debates on gender issues will be prepared. Ceres will cover gender issues on a more systematic basis. A visual presentation set on WID will be prepared to mobilize support for related activities. Electronic distribution of graphics and photographs on WID, and CD-ROM disks containing WID material will be made available.
117. Strategies: FAO's Library and Documentation Services currently receive numerous requests for information on women in agriculture including bibliographies and specialized searches which are partially answered through the provision of FAO's special printed bibliography. In order to better provide easily-accessible information on gender issues in agriculture and rural development, GIL will support the following strategies: a) update, increase, and improve FAO's holdings on women/gender in all aspects of rural development addressed by FAO's technical divisions and Member Nations; and b) facilitate the interdisciplinary exchange of information throughout FAO, and with Member Nations and other organizations addressing agriculture and rural development concerns.
118. Instruments: GIL will update and broaden its printed bibliography to include non-FAO publications and AGRIS/CARIS topics on women in agriculture and rural development in order to make available a wide range of information useful to decision-makers, researchers, and other development agents. They will also introduce specific subject search keys in the Library Office Information System (OIS), FAO INFO Current Awareness File, and List of Selected Articles (LOSA), enabling users to more easily access references and information on many subjects, including women in agriculture and rural development. The Division will form a Core Group to capture and provide information on women in agriculture and rural development, and coordinate with other information specialists in GI and AFC to make cost-effective components of this information as widely available as possible, for example, through the World Agricultural Information Centre (WAICENT), multi-media CD-ROM, and other optical technology, as well as traditional print media. GIL will also further develop information bases electronically on the Gopher and the Web; these bases will eventually be readily accessed from every desktop at FAO headquarters and, in successive stages, by the regional offices and selected country offices having the minimal information infrastructure necessary.
121. Department/Division level. Each Division will be responsible for the implementation of its Programme of Action on Women in Development as part of its overall Programme of Work and Budget (PWB). For the purpose of facilitating coordination of the Programmes of Action within Divisions and Departments, WID focal points may be designated or WID Core Groups may be established, such as exist in the Fisheries Department and in the Agricultural Support Systems Division (AGS). Focal Points or Core Groups will monitor progress on implementing the Programmes of Action, ensuring that the activities envisioned are reflected in the Biennial Divisional PWB. The Focal Points and Core Groups will also provide a direct linkage and liaison between the Divisions and the Women and People's Participation in Development Division (SDW).
122. Interdepartmental level. The Director-General has established the Steering Committee on Women in Development to function as the highest level coordinating and advisory body on WID. This Steering Committee supersedes the previous mechanism established, the Interdepartmental Working Group on WID (IDWG/WID), and responds to recommendations of Progress Reports on Implementation of the Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development approved by the FAO Conference, to streamline and make more effective the mechanisms for coordination and advice in this area. The Steering Committee on WID is chaired by the Director of the Women and People's Participation Division, in the Sustainable Development Department, and is comprised of eight additional Division Directors, each of whom represents one of the eight Departments as the selected delegates of their respective Assistant Director-Generals (ADGs). The Steering Committee also includes the Director of OCD, who represents the Regional and Sub-regional Offices and Country Representations, and a representative of the Office of Programme, Budget and Evaluation (PBE).
123. Steering Committee meetings will be held as required, but at minimum once a year. The Steering Committee has the power to convoke working groups to study and prepare recommendations on relevant WID/gender topics, and to invite technical specialists from the Divisions to provide advice as required. For each Department, the Division Director representing the Department on the Steering Committee will coordinate with the Department's Divisional Focal Points or Core Groups and report to the Departmental ADG on issues relating to the implementation of the Plan of Action.
124. The Steering Committee will provide policy guidance and facilitate coordination and decision-making on substantive and operational matters relating to WID. To this effect, it will:
127. As appropriate, the content of the Plan and progress on its implementation will be included in other United Nations' venues. These will include reports and meetings that are preparatory or follow-up to various international conferences and programmes of action, such as UNCED Agenda 21, the FAO/WHO Conference on Nutrition, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Social Summit, the World Conference on Women, HABITAT II, and the World Food Summit.
128. SDW will also continue to liaise with WID/gender counterpart units in other UN agencies (such as ILO, INSTRAW, UNDP, UNICEF, UNIFEM, and World Bank) and in donor governments regarding the collaborative efforts to implement the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS) and the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. The Division will make special efforts to increase coordination and collaboration with international NGOs that are concerned with issues affecting rural women.
130. Monitoring of the Field Programme (FP) will be improved, inter alia, by:
131. Monitoring of activities under the Regular Programme (RP) will occur primarily through annual reports to be submitted by the technical and administrative Divisions on the progress achieved over the previous year. These reports will be reviewed by the Evaluation Service (PBEE) and SDWW, and consolidated into the Organization-wide progress report to be submitted to the FAO Conference every four years.
133. Some Divisions have proposed programmes that are more ambitious and will require extra-budgetary financing. Donor governments will be called upon to give special consideration to financing Divisional activities oriented toward capacity building at national level in the area of WID, and to supporting the inclusion of WID experts in missions to facilitate the integration of WID/gender issues into mainstream project and programme formulation, monitoring and evaluation exercises.
135. FAO will develop ways and means to increase the number of women professionals hired and retained in the Organization. These will include measures that provide for the selection of women when equally qualified, that lessen restrictions on spousal employment, that facilitate the establishment of a spouse employment assistance programme in conjunction with other Rome-based public international organizations, and that are more supportive of work-family linkages.
136. FAO will expand the external and internal pool of qualified women candidates by building and maintaining a roster of institutions and NGOs concerned with rural women's issues, women's professional organizations (especially those concerned with agricultural and rural development), and of women's bureaux and ministries that can provide greater numbers of qualified potential women candidates. It will make a special effort to identify candidates who can increase the pool of qualified women FAORs, D-1s and D-2s. The Organization will encourage women's applications originating from Members and from Field Project Directors.
137. FAO will place increased emphasis on the training and development of women staff in order to encourage their access to higher level posts. The introduction of Staff Development Programmes will be considered to develop, inter alia, supervisory and managerial skills of staff; balanced gender representation in these programmes will be pursued. Information about staff possessing specialized technical and management experience, including their gender, will be provided to relevant Divisions.
138. Finally, it should also be stressed that affirmative action issues apply to the beneficiaries of and participants in FAO's work, as well as to its own staff. In this regard, virtually all of the Divisional Programmes of Action highlight the need to make a renewed commitment to employ women as consultants and as project staff, and to recruit qualified professional women at Headquarters, as well as to increase the number of women in project-related training programmes.