Annex 3

Environmental Indicators in Livestock Production Systems

Detailed sets of indicators will be developed as a follow-up (and in parallel) with this study. Some examples, categorized by environmental factor (soil, water, etc.) and whether the indicator is a measurement taken from the natural resource base, the livestock present, or the human component. They are in general response indicators, because these can be most easily defined.

Grazing systems
Category Natural resource base Livestock Socio-economic
Soil/land Erosion - Universal Soil Loss Equation
Presence and use of legumesManure collection & application practices
Arid: Herd mobility
Sub-humid, and humid: Stocking rate and productivity trends
Arid: Human carrying capacity of the land
Land tenure and recent trends in fencing and crop-encroachment in key areas:
Vulnerability to drought (reliance on food aid)
Vegetation Proportion of ground cover
Plant species composition and mosaics, rate between, rate of fire wood collections
Presence and use of leguminous plants
Utilization of crop aftermath, tame pastures and native rangelands
Rate of deforestation
Forage demand
Diet preferences
Animal productivity & species composition
Cohesion of users groups
Diversity of land use
Water Water turbidity
Number of boreholes
Number of new surface watering points
Water quality (nitrate, pesticide content)
Use requirements
Air Greenhouse gas balance Greenhouse gas balance
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Mixed farm indicators
Category Natural resource base Livestock Socio-economic
Soil Erosion - Universal Soil Loss Equation
Nutrient Levels - Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Copper, Zinc
Organic Matter - Cation Exchange Capacity
Farmgate and regional nutrient balances
Presence and use of legumes
Access to animal traction,
Manure storage and utilization,
Quantity of concentrates brought into the system
Rate of integration and degree ofreliance on outside inputs;
Community cohesion in watershed and regional landscape
Vegetation Proportion of ground cover
Plant species composition and mosaics
Presence and use of leguminous plants
Forage demand
Diet preferences
Farm income
Water Water turbidity
N, P in runoff and ground water
Insecticide levels
Use requirements {short description of image}
Air Manure application techniques Quality of animal diets
Number of animals
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Indicators for industrial livestock production systems
Input-related Production-related Output-related
Land use changes and land requirements for feed production Conversion efficiencies for N and P by animal species Manure discharge
Nutrient balances
Percentage of grains in concentrates and diet Farmgate N and P balance Fertilizing value of manure
Rangeland requirements for young stock Ammonia emissions Methane emissions
Livestock breeds used Methane emissions Tons of liveweight slaughtered
Inputs to feed production (fuel, fertilizer) Fossil energy consumption Tons raw milk
{short description of image} Animal welfare index Tons of raw hides processed
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Processing industry
Direct Indicators Indirect indicators
amount of solid waste portion of industrial and traditional processing
BOD output in wastewater (total, and not as a percentage of effluent r, as this would provide incentives to just increase water use) portion of by-product utilization
CO2, CO and Nitrous Oxide Emissions {short description of image}
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