FAO STATISTICAL DEVELOPMENT SERIES
PROGRAMME FOR THE WORLD CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE 2000
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Chapter 6 presents suggestions for the tabulation of data collected in the census of agriculture. It provides a check list of commonly used cross tabulations which countries may use to assist them in developing their tabulation programme. It is emphasized again that the tabulation programme should be developed in coordination with the questionnaire design. Countries should be aware that a tabulation programme does not necessarily meet all the needs for data dissemination. Countries should try to utilize their data base to produce analytical reports on a continuing basis to fully utilize the information from the census programme.
This chapter includes also the main classifications suggested for cross tabulations. Countries may have class boundaries they prefer for their needs, however they are urged to report, in addition, results, according to the suggested ranges in order to ensure comparability of national statistical data.
6.1 To meet user needs, the data collected in the agricultural census must be meaningfully summarized as well as fully processed. Summaries are sometimes in the form of totals, averages or percentages providing a quick general understanding of characteristics. Fully processed data should be made available in an easily accessible computer data base conducive to analytical uses. Data are generally summarized in the form of simple tabulations, giving information by classes of a single characteristic, or cross tabulations providing information by classes of two or more characteristics. Cross tabulations based on two characteristics are preferable. Summaries should fully describe the distribution of characteristics.
6.2 The census tabulation programme refers to the table list and other summary measures published. Sampling errors of some important estimates should also be included if sample enumeration has been used. It is important to produce summary measures which can be evaluated together with those of previous censuses, to study changes over time. The tabulation programme for tables to be published should clearly indicate:
6.3 Because the tabulation programme represents a published census end product, decisions concerning it are directly related to other design aspects of the agricultural census. Cross tabulation requirements must be evaluated concurrently with the census scope. The number of administrative units and agroecological regions for which separate tabulations are required is a decisive factor in choosing between complete enumeration, sampling or a combination of both methods.
6.4 The large volume of work involved in tabulations is an important consideration in preparing the tabulation programme. Available manpower including computer programmers, number of data input stations and computer capacity may impose limitations on the tabulation programme. It is recommended to establish priorities for tables to be included in the tabulation programme and to concentrate efforts on obtaining those tables first (see paragraph 3.56).
6.5 This Chapter contains a checklist of tables recommended for national or international use. Countries may wish to restrict or augment tabulations to meet their national needs; they are cautioned against excessive cross tabulations if the census is conducted on a sample basis, as sampling errors of the estimates in some cells of tables may be very large due to the small number of sample units in these cells. In both complete and sample enumeration, excessive cross tabulations where some cells contain only one or two units may also impair confidentiality.
6.6 Numerous combinations of characteristics can be used for cross tabulation purposes. Certain characteristics are identified as the priority ones against which other characteristics are tabulated. These are:
6.7 Total area of holding, is the most widely used classification. It was proposed in the 1930 Programme and has been recommended for all subsequent census programmes. While total area of holding provides a fairly clear measure of size, particularly for regions with homogeneous land, it has certain serious limitations:
6.8 Arable land is a useful size criteria for studying holdings engaged mainly in crop production. "Agricultural land" area which includes arable land plus land under protective cover, land under permanent crops, and land under meadows and pastures, is a suitable measure for a farm engaged with crop production and raising livestock.
6.9 Number of livestock is an appropriate size criterion for holdings engaged mainly in livestock raising. This classification criteria should be used only for the predominant kind of livestock in the country and where livestock keeping is a major activity.
6.10 Purpose of production is a relevant measure to use in identifying holdings which have little participation in the market structure and utilize production resources primarily for home consumption.
6.11 Number of permanent workers is useful in studying the labour source used on holdings.
6.12 Land tenure provides information on access to land by holders. This subject is one of the main areas of concern in the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD) Programme of Action.
6.13 Holder's legal status provides a base for comparative analysis of holdings operated by individuals, households, cooperatives, etc.
6.14 Size of holder's household is relevant for understanding the dependence of rural people on land. This is also important in evaluating labour sources, as the household provides unpaid family workers. Because of the difficulty in associating household size with holdings operated by two or more individuals belonging to different households or by two households, it is recommended that holder's household size be considered only for those holdings operated by an individual or single household.
6.15 Holder's age is an important concern in many countries experiencing emigration from rural areas.
6.16 Holder's sex will provide separate data for holdings operated by women. Rural women are one of the disadvantaged groups requiring special attention in all developing countries.
6.17 Irrigation is an important concern in countries where there are competing needs for water resources and agricultural production is dependent on or is utilizing irrigation to increase agricultural production.
Classes for main classification criteria
6.18 Chapter 5 suggested and provided definitions for characteristics for collection during the enumeration process. This section suggests classes to use for tabulating results of the enumeration. Countries are urged to adopt these classes to the extent possible to provide internationally comparable results. Countries are also cautioned that using too many classifications may overburden processing capabilities, it is mentioned in paragraph 6.5 that countries may wish to restrict or augment their tabulations to meet national needs. Countries that wish to utilize more detailed classes are recommended to adopt classes which can be regrouped into these suggested classes.
6.19 Total area of holding - This classification covers all holdings. The same classification is recommended for total area of agricultural land.
6.20 Cropland of holding - This classification covers all holdings. The same classification is recommended for arable land area.
6.21 Number of cattle - This classification covers all holdings.
6.22 Number of buffaloes - This classification covers all holdings.
6.23 Number of sheep - This classification covers all holdings.
6.24Number of goats - Same classification as for sheep.
6.25 Number of pigs - Same classification as for sheep.
6.26 Number of chickens - This classification covers all holdings.
6.27 Purpose of production - This classification applies to all holdings.
6.28Number of permanent agricultural workers - This classification covers all holdings
6.29 Land tenure - This classification covers all holdings. The breakdown (c) may not be applicable in some cross tabulations.
6.30 Holder's legal status - This classification covers all holdings.
6.31 Size of holder's household - This classification covers only those holdings operated by an individual or a household. Other holdings are excluded.
6.32 Holder's age - This classification applies only to holdings operated by an individual, a household, two or more individuals of different households or two or more households. It excludes other holdings. In the case of holdings operated by a household, two or more individuals of different households or two or more households, one senior holder should be selected.
6.33 Holders's sex - Explanations given above for holder's age, equally apply here.
6.34 Irrigation - Holdings that do not irrigate any land.
Classes for other characteristics
6.35 Administrative units and agroecological regions - Classes by administrative units and agroecological zones depend on country circumstances.
6.36 Integration with another economic unit - This classification covers all holdings.
6.37 Other economic activities of enterprises operating a holding - This classification applies to holdings that are part of an enterprise also engaged in another economic activity.
6.38 Hired manager
6.39 Age of holder's household members - The first three age groups are combined for the holder when cross-classifying holder's age (see holder's age).
6.40 Sex of holder's household members
6.41 Activity status - This classification covers holder's household members above a specified age see paragraph 6.39
6.42 Number of holder's household members economically active.
6.43 Work of household members on holding - This classification applies to economically active members of holder's household.
6.44 Holder's occupations - Not having any other occupation besides being a holder.
6.45 Employment of agricultural workers
6.46 Sex of permanent agricultural workers
6.47 Number of parcels
6.48 Land rented out
6.49 Shifting cultivation
6.51 Size of parcels
6.52 Land use
6.53 Time elapsed since clearance for cultivation (in shifting cultivation)
6.54 Area harvested
6.55 Plantation features and ages of permanent crops
6.59 Livestock system
6.60 Indication of machinery and equipment used and source for each type
6.61 Use of nonresidential buildings
6.62 Use of nonresidential buildings owned
6.63 Existence and area of forest trees
6.64 Fisheries activity and cultural installation
Check list of cross tabulations
6.65 The following figure gives a check list of commonly used cross tabulations which are indicated with an (x). The row headings list the main characteristics as detailed in Chapter 5, with Category O1 (holding location information) omitted because all tables need to be cross-tabulated by administrative area and agro-ecological region. Columns 1 to 11 set out the main classification criteria (see paragraphs 6.18-6.34)
6.66 Some items appear in both row and column because certain cross tabulations are needed, but they are indicated only once to avoid repetition.
6.67 Statistics presented in the checklist refer to either numbers of holdings, livestock, parcels, trees, etc., or areas, according to the criteria used. Clarification is needed for: Number of holdings and Number of holdings reporting. In classifications where a holding is included in only one cell, the number of holdings in each cell refers to a mutually exclusive subset of all holdings being studied. However, not all classifications have this property: some require holdings to be allocated to more than one cell. In such cases, the total should indicate number of holdings reporting instead of number of holdings. For example, to classify holdings by total area, the concept number of holdings is appropriate as each holding will fall into only one size class. On the other hand, to classify the holdings by land use, the concept number of holdings reporting should be used because a holding having two types of land, such as area under permanent crops and area under woodland or forest, will appear twice in the classification.