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close this bookThe Nutrition and Health Transition of Democratic Costa Rica (INFDC, 1995, 228 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentContributors to this volume
View the documentIntroduction
close this folder1. Health policies and strategies
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentA brief description of Costa Rica
View the documentPublic health development
View the documentThe decade of the 1970s
View the documentThe decade of the 1980s
View the documentFinal reflections
View the documentReferences
close this folder2. Development of the social security institute
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentBackground
View the documentSocial security in Costa Rica
View the documentThe extension of direct insurance
View the documentExtension of insurance to the family
View the documentThe financial crisis
View the documentThe constitutional amendment
View the documentToward universalization
View the documentDevelopment of human resources
View the documentThe integration
View the documentThe new health care models
View the documentFinal comments
close this folder3. Development and characteristics of health and nutrition services for urban and rural communities of Costa Rica
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentBackground information on community outreach programs
View the documentMethodological characteristics of the Costa Rican health programs
View the documentNutrition programs
View the documentImpact of the programs on the health of children living in rural areas
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentBibliography
close this folder4. Evolution of an epidemiological profile
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentStages of a process
View the documentThe first four decades of the century
View the documentThe period between 1940 and 1970
View the documentThe decade of the 1970s
View the documentThe decade of the 1980s
View the documentThe last decade of the century
View the documentFinal comments
View the documentReferences
close this folder5. Socioeconomic factors for the understanding of health policy during the 1970s
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentRecognition of social demands and the regulation of the conflict during the 1930s and 1940s
View the documentThe social government in the new development strategy of Costa Rica during the 1950s and 1960s
View the documentThe consolidated social government
View the documentFinal reflections
View the documentAcknowledgement
View the documentReferences
close this folder6. Problems and challenges of the health sector during the 1980s
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentSome problems of the health sector in the 1980s
View the documentBalance of the 1980s and perspectives for the 1990s in the health sector
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix 1 - Glossary
close this folderAppendix 2 - Supplementary reading list
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View the documentEnglish-language supplementary reading list
View the documentSpanish-language supplementary reading list
View the documentSupplementary reading list - INCAP publications
close this folderAppendix 3 - Health conditions in Costa Rica 1994
View the documentGeneral information
View the documentSpecific health problems

Stages of a process

In order to facilitate the analysis of the events that have taken place in the area of health during this century, the author considers that it is convenient to divide them into several stages based on specific characteristics involving the behavior of health indicators as well as the socioeconomic situation and the response of the country institutions to what at the time were considered the most important health problems:

· In an initial stage, which covers the first four decades of this century, mortality rates were high and fluctuating, with a clear predominance of infectious and parasitic diseases among children under five years of age. The predominant health activities involved the creation and institutionalization of entities whose mission was to solve specific problems.

· A clear mortality decline can be observed between 1940 and 1970 at the same time that infectious and parasitic diseases continued to be prevalent. During this stage, health actions were based on the treatment approach.

· During the 1970s, a dramatic decline in mortality and morbidity due to infections and parasites can be observed in all age groups. During this stage, a cohesive see of policies and health strategies guided the activities following a broad preventive approach.

· During the 1980s, the country experienced the worst socioeconomic crisis, and the government reduced the resources allocated to the health sector. Whereas during the first half of the 1980s the rate of decline in mortality decreased, during the second half of the past decade a greater improvement in health indicators was observed coinciding with a resolution of the crisis, a modest increase in resource allocation and continuing decentralization of the health sector.

· The last decade of this century will be the final stage. The trends observed during the last decade allow for the prediction of the probable evolution of the health status and principal causes of death in all age groups and geographic regions, assuming that new factors do not cause a deviation from past trends.