|Basic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools, Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)|
UNIT 9 FOOD AND NUTRITION
P1 TERM 3
By the end of this unit, pupils should be able to:
1. Describe why we need food.
· Eat good food at regular times.
· Collect different foods from various places.
· Wash hands before touching food.
· Different types of food help our bodies in different ways.
· Some foods make our bodies grow bigger. These are body-building foods or grow foods.
· Some foods give us energy to play, walk and do manual work.
· Other foods protect our bodies from getting certain diseases and help the bodies work properly. These are called protective foods.
· Foods are obtained from farms, gardens, markets, shops, rivers etc. Foods may be wild plants or insects.
· Foods get contaminated by dirty hands, flies, dirty containers etc.
· Hands should always be washed before eating or handling food.
Notes for the Teacher
Food is any substance which when taken into the body will nourish the cells and enable the body to grow, do work, carry out other activities, and keep the body healthy.
The substances in foods which help with all body processes are found in different forms and quantities in different foods. As a result, some foods make the body grow bigger, others provide energy and others repair damage and protect us from disease.
These are eggs, milk, fish, meat, soya beans, peas, ground nuts, edible insects, yoghurt, liver and kidneys.
These are cooking oil, butter, margarine, jam, sugar, maize, bananas, potatoes, rice, cassava, yams, bread, cakes, sweets.
These are fruits, vegetables, salt, water, butter, margarine and eggs. Children need a lot of body building/grow foods in order to increase in height and weight, that is to grow up. Children and other people also need energy giving foods. These foods help them to walk, play, keep alert and warm.
Protective grow foods keep our eyes, skin and hair shining. These foods also protect us from getting diseases like night blindness, rough skin and help to purify our blood. They also enable us to fight against other diseases.
It is recommended to eat at least one food from each group everyday. This makes up a balanced diet.
Foods are obtained from
a) farms and gardens e.g. matooke, potatoes, millet ground nuts, maize pawpaws, green vegetables etc.
b) lakes and rivers e.g. fish, crab, lobsters etc.
c) animals e.g. meat, milk, liver, kidney, pork, mutton
d) birds e.g. chickens, ducks, pigeons, doves, eggs, turkey
e) Some edible insects: e.g. grasshoppers, ants,
f) some wild fruits we can eat: e.g. straw berries, "matunguru" N "ocao" "ntuntunu", "Apedur" (Tammarin)
People who live by farming eat fresh foods which are very good.
But people who live in towns and cities have to buy their foods from the markets, shops or super markets. Foods bought in shops, markets, and super markets are more expensive and not as fresh as foods obtained from the farm or garden.
There are many ways of collecting foods to eat. e.g. fishing, harvesting, buying from shops or markets, milking, sucking from mother's breasts etc.
Foods are made dirty by dirty hands, flies, dirty containers, dust which settles on uncovered foods or soil which may be on the food. Dirty foods make us sick. When fruits fall on the ground from a tree, they become dirty with dust and soil. Sometimes a fruit like mango may fall on faeces on the ground. Then it becomes dangerous to eat that fruit before washing it thoroughly.
Dirty hands can also spread disease. When we go to the latrine/toilet or touch dirty objects, we often contaminate our lands with germs which may be carrying disease. That is why we should always wash hands before eating, and after visiting the latrine or toilet.
Good Eating Habits
a) Wash hands before eating, and after visiting the latrine/toilet.
b) Chew food properly and eat slowly, not hurriedly. Then much of the food will be useful to the body.
c) Do not talk with your mouth full of food; you may choke.
d) Eat food from each food group - eat a balanced meal.
e) Have regular meals. Eat enough from each group.
f) Wash hands after eating food.
g) Never eat left over smelly food. It may be poisonous.
h) Wash fruits and vegetables before eating them.
i) Do not eat food that has dropped on the floor. It may have picked up germs.
j) Eat well cooked foods. Brush teeth after eating food.
All Effects of Bad Eating Habits:
Bad eating habits can endanger our health:
1. Constipation is one of the will effects of bad eating habits.
· improper chewing delays digestion thus causing constipation.
· Other common causes of constipation are eating at short intervals and eating too much food.
2. Another danger is eating too little food.
This may come about if one generally swallows food too fast. It is heaped in the gullet and one feels that he has had enough food.
3. Drinking too much liquid when one is eating prevents a person from eating enough solid food. Too much liquid (e.g. water) may also dilute digestive juices and interfere with digestion.
4. Talking or laughing too much may cause food to go into the wind pipe and obstruct the respiratory system, or one may unknowingly swallow a dangerous solid e.g. a bone.
SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:
a) Play a blindfold game to identify various types of food by taste, smell, and touch.
b) Visit market near school, and find out where the food comes from.
c) Help in the school farm and home garden.
d) Make a food corner - market with food wrappers and containers.
Group foods into those of
· from Uganda/from outside
· by colour.
e) Demonstrate good eating habits.
f) Make leaky tins and use them to wash hands.
g) Make a chart of good food habits.
h) Make seed beds, poultry keeping, water plants and get class to visit a vegetable garden.
Raw & ripe foods
Empty food containers
Markers and tables
SKILLS TO DEVELOP:
· Following instructions.
· Observation memory.
· Problem solving.
2. Group project chart on where foods come from.
3. Inter-house or inter-class cleanliness competitions.
1. Inspect food/meals in boarding schools to see if the diet is mixed.
2. Visit nearby market to see what foods are sold.
3. Keep food shop corner with real samples or containers.
4. Water containers: water pot, sauce pans, jerricans etc.
5. Fuel: firewood, match box, dry grass.
6. Sword grass/lemon grass/red top grass (for making house cleaning brooms).
7. Sticks with three or more branches at the same point (for making simple dust bins).
8. Food stuffs: cassava, sweet potatoes, fruits, bananas etc, for demonstration on how to keep them clean.
9. Food utensils: plates, cups, spoons, etc (for demonstration on how they can be cleaned throughly well with soap and water and sundried on the utensils stand).
10. Check on seed bed and school garden. Record which foods are available during this season in the gardens, at home, in markets.
(What have you learnt from this chapter?)
1. Why do we need food?
2. What do you understand by a "balanced diet"?
3. Describe the various ways of collecting foods.
4. Why is it necessary to wash our hands before touching food?
5. Describe the ill effects of bad eating habits.