|Food and Nutrition Bulletin Volume 17, Number 1, 1996 (UNU, 1996, 92 p.)|
Body composition techniques in health and disease. Edited by P. S. W. Davies and T. J. Cole. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995. (ISBN 0-521-461790) 282 pages, hardback. US$54.95.
Body composition studies are used in a wide variety of fields, including human biology, medicine, sports science, and epidemiology, as well as nutrition. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the field of body composition together with rapid development of a whole new range of assessment techniques. In this volume, new and old techniques are evaluated and future developments are discussed. Both editors are at the Dunn Nutritional Laboratory in Cambridge, which has made major contributions to improving body composition, and they have selected an outstanding group of authors for the 14 chapters. It is written to be understood by persons without detailed background in body composition techniques, yet to be valuable for researchers currently using them.
Manual for social surveys on food habits and consumption in developing countries. Adel P. den Hartog, Wija A. van Staveren, and Inge D. Brouwer. Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim, Germany, 1995. (ISBN 38236-1237-9) 153 pages, paperback. US$16.00, DM 22.00.
This excellent manual is a revised and updated version of earlier editions published in 1983 and 1988. The first part of the manual is devoted to the theoretical background of food habits and consumption. The chapters include an introduction to food habits and food consumption patterns, food habits and ecology, dynamics of food habits, orientation from food subsistence farming to cashcrop farming, food habits and urbanization, food distribution in the household and infant feeding, food shortages and adaptation, and nutrition policy and programmes. The second part of the manual provides practical information on how to conduct small-scale surveys to collect data on food habits and consumption. Five appendices are included that provide observational data on food ethnography, examples of a food ethnography questionnaire, presentation of data, a sample questionnaire on individual food consumption, and examples of nutrient calculations. It is intended to be used as a guide by those involved in various types of food and nutrition programmes or nutrition-related community health activities, primarily in developing countries.
Fats and oils in human nutrition: Report of a joint expert consultation. FAO, Rome, 1994. (ISSN 02544725) Single copies are available from FAO without charge to developing country institutions.
FAO and WHO utilized 70 workshop participants, consultants, and reviewers worldwide to produce this authoritative state-of-the art summary of the role of dietary fats and oils in human nutrition. It includes a discussion of the evidence and issues considered, conclusions, and recommendations, and an extensive bibliography. The intakes of different types of dietary fats and oils and their associated health effects are reviewed in the light of the many technical factors associated with the production, processing, marketing, and utilization of fats and oils.
The report includes chapters on the composition of dietary fat; aspects of fat digestion and metabolism; global trends in the availability of edible fats and oils; processing and refining edible oils; selected uses of fats and oils in foods; lipids in early development; health, obesity, and energy values; coronary heart disease and lipoproteins; isomeric fatty acids; cancer and dietary fat; dietary fat and immune response; dietary fat, hypertension, and stroke; non-glyceride components of fats; and nutrition labeling. The recommendations made will assist policy makers, health-care providers, the food industry, and consumers.
Ingredient interactions: Effects on food quality. Edited by Anilkumar G. Gaonkar. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995. (ISBN 0-8247-9347-1) 585 pages, hardback. US$185.00.
The nutritional value of a food depends not only on the nutrients it contains but also on their interactions with each other and with other constituents such as fibre, phytates, and other ingredients. This book covers the interactions of starches, hydrocolloids, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, emulsifiers, flavours, and preservatives. This is a book for food scientists and technologists, particularly those concerned with industrially processed foods.
How third world rural households adapt to dietary energy stress. The evidence and the issues. Food policy review 2. Philip Payne and Michael Lipton. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 1994. (ISBN 0-89629-501-X) 134 pages, paperback. Single copies may be obtained free of charge from IFPRI, 1200 Seventeenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 200363006.
This report reviews the evidence that there are types of persons, households, and situations for which
adaptation to low-energy intake can occur because of social adjustments with minimum biological consequences. These responses increase the probability of survival of fertile offspring. The authors accept to some degree the controversial view that intergenerational stunting is an appropriate adjustment for the poor of developing countries. The authors point out that of all the biological responses, those related to changes of body size are the most significant in terms of energy saved and the "relatively small costs incurred." The larger responses, however, are behavioural, ideally shifting the tasks of food acquisition to more energy-intensive or easily gathered foods or towards less vulnerable household members, but when necessary doing each task more slowly, resting more, and avoiding the more energy-demanding. Many will feel that the evidence for cognitive consequences needs more recognition than it receives in this book.
Because societies tend to adjust to chronic energy stress, the evidence suggests that only the extremely poor increase energy intake substantially in response to greater income. Nutritionists and social scientists will find this publication stimulating, provocative, and informative. Anyone interested in the impact of energy stress on individuals and societies should obtain a copy of this slender paperback review.