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close this bookHygiene Evaluation Procedures - Approaches and Methods for Assessing Water- and Sanitation-Related Hygiene Practices (INFDC, 1997, 124 p.)
close this folder7. Analysis, presentation, and implementation of findings
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentStages of analysis and interpretation of findings
View the documentEstablishing the trustworthiness of information
View the documentPresentation of findings
View the documentImplementation of findings

Presentation of findings

The results of your hygiene evaluation study may be reported in different ways depending on the target audience or readership. To begin with, you will have a written report which will contain a complete record of the study processes and findings. Once you have completed the report, you may decide to extract parts of it, and prepare short summaries for dissemination among the various stakeholders who will expect to learn about your results. In this section, we will deal with the complete report first and then suggest additional ways in which it may be disseminated among specific audiences or readerships.

Writing a Complete Study Report

At the end of the investigation and analysis processes, you will find yourself with considerable amounts of fieldnotes, charts, and other written records of what you have done. These will all need to be systematically organized, kept in notebooks, and files compiled by hand or on a computer, if available. You can then start putting them together following a report outline, as shown in "Stages of Analysis and Interpretation of Findings" in this chapter. Box 25 provides an example of a report outline.

Writing Separate Summaries for Specific Readers or Interest Groups

You may need to send short summaries such as an executive summary to your project funders, the study population, local community groups, governmental, and/or non-governmental counterparts. It is important to balance well the positive and negative findings when reporting in short, executive summary format. By definition, an executive summary does not allow the reader the benefit of seeing the findings in the context. Evaluation study results are seldom entirely positive or entirely negative, but a combination of the two. Whether they are interpreted as positive or negative depends on who is interpreting and using them.

You may also want to prepare short articles summarizing your findings for dissemination in local and/or regional networks of practitioners working in the fields of health/hygiene education, water supply, and sanitation; research network such as the global applied research net work (GARNET) which has a topic network on Hygiene Behaviour, the working group on Promotion of Sanitation, and so on. You will need to bear in mind the interests of each of these groups when deciding what to include, and what language and style to use.

Making Verbal Presentations to Selected Groups and Inviting Their Comments and Suggestions

You may find it beneficial to present partial or full results of your investigation to some of the most important stakeholders in the study in order to elicit their responses to the analysis and interpretation of your findings. For example, in Chapters 5 and 6, we looked at a number of participatory tools for information gathering (mapping, historyline, seasonal calendars, pocket chart) which included the presentation of information gathered to the study participants there and then. Charts, graphs, and other visual displays can be used to present the findings in ways that will interest and stimulate participants. However, only overall results should be given and not details of individual interviews or households.

BOX 25. Outline of a Report

· Title page: Authors' Names Institutions, and Date
· Executive Summary (this is written last-after the report has been completed)
· Acknowledgments
· Table of Contents
· Lists of Tables and Figures
· List of People consulted/List of Abbreviations/Glossary (as appropriate)
· Introduction (Including background to study and organization of the report)
· Study Design and Organization

· Study aims, objectives, and intended outputs
· Description of study team
· Study schedule
· Training

· Study Site(s) and Population(s)

· Background (including maps of study sites)
· Sampling strategies

· Methods and Tools Used for Investigation and Analysis
· Results (Including descriptive analysis but no interpretation)
· Discussion (including 'Interpretation and judgement of findings)
· Appraisal of Methods/Tools Used
· Conclusions and Recommendations
· References (a list of any documentary materials used and referred to in the report)

· Appendices/Annexes (these may include details of the study schedule; complete diary of activities; observation and interview schedules used; fieldnotes such as transcriptions of interviews, and anything else judged to be relevant to the contents of the report but 'is too bulky to be included in the main body of the report.)

Your project may already have trained personnel (e.g., trainer or project spokesperson) who can present the study findings at workshops, meetings and conferences where various audiences may be interested in hearing about your findings.

The type of visual and other materials you can use to present your results will depend on the resources available. Often, summaries of findings written on flip-charts using thick marker pens and big letters (including diagrams, charts, and graphs where appropriate) are the most effective ways to present findings to large groups in both rural and urban areas. These require less financial resources to prepare and can be more creative and fun to do.

Organizing a Discussion or Debate the Findings in Which Opposing Points of View Can Be Aired

This is a particularly good idea if the level of participation of the different stakeholders is high and if your findings are likely to be interpreted significantly different by groups according to their opposing interests. In the final analysis, comparisons must be made carefully and appropriately to avoid the drawing of wrong conclusions.