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close this bookActivity, Energy Expenditure and Energy Requirements of Infants and Children (IDECG, 1989, 412 p.)
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View the documentIntroduction
close this folderEnergy requirements in normal infants and children
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View the documentAbstract
close this folder1. Essential terminology and concepts
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View the document1.1. Energy requirements
View the document1.2. Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
View the document2. Factorial approach to energy requirement
View the document3. The breast-fed baby as a model for energy requirements
View the document4. The doubly-labelled water method
View the document5. Application of the doubly-labelled water method to estimate energy requirement
close this folder6. Validation studies employing doubly-labelled water
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View the document6.1. Energy expenditure and milk intake in fast-growing preterm infants
View the document6.2. Validation of dose-to-the-baby method for measuring milk intake
View the document6.3. Determination of milk energy content using the doubly-labelled water method
close this folder7. Metabolisable energy and energy content of breast milk determined by the doubly-labelled water method
View the document7.1. A study and its results
View the document7.2. Critique of findings
View the document8. How logical is the current approach to estimating energy requirements?
View the document9. Future directions
View the documentReferences
close this folderLow energy intakes and growth velocities of breast-fed infants: Are there functional consequences?
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Methods
View the document2.1. Study design
View the document2.2. Anthropometry
View the document2.3. Morbidity
View the document2.4. Energy intake
View the document2.5. Activity
View the document2.6. Data analysis
View the document3. Results
View the document4. Conclusions
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion (summarized by A.M. Prentice)
close this folderMethods to assess physical activity and the energy expended for it by infants and children
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. General considerations in deciding what to measure
close this folder2. Methods of acquiring information on the physical activity of infants and children
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View the document2.1. Questionnaire or diary record
View the document2.2. Direct, objective measurements of activity
View the document2.3. Heart-rate recording
View the document2.4. Methods of acquiring information on energy expenditure
View the document3. Conclusions
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close this folderEstimation and validation of energy expenditure obtained by the minute-by-minute measurement of heart-rate
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View the documentAbstract
close this folder1. Heart-rate method
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View the document1.1. Subject calibration
View the document1.2. Calculation of energy expenditure from fH
close this folder2. Validation of heart-rate method
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View the document2.1. Sources of error
close this folder3. Applications of the heart-rate method
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View the document3.1. Daily pattern of EE and TDEE
View the document3.2. Pattern of relative effort
View the document3.3. Comparison of EE pattern of individuals
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close this folderAssessment and significance of body composition in infants and children
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View the document1. Techniques for estimating body composition
View the document2. Changes in body composition during growth
View the document3. The companionship of lean body mass and fat
View the document4. Maintenance energy need is related to body size and composition
View the document5. The energy cost of weight gain
View the documentAcknowledgements
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View the documentDiscussion (summarized by A. Ferro-Luzzi)
close this folderTotal energy expenditure of free-living infants and children obtained by the doubly-labelled water method
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Method
View the document2.1. Principle of the doubly-labelled water method
View the document2.2. Validation studies
View the document2.3. Possible sources of error in field applications
close this folder3. A review of published studies
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View the document3.1. Studies in hospitalised patients
View the document3.2. Studies in free-living, but sick, children
View the document3.3. Studies relating to obesity
View the document3.4. Studies in breast-fed and formula-fed infants
View the document3.5. Studies in undernourished children
View the document3.6. Using DLW estimates to establish energy requirements
View the document4. Outstanding methodological concerns
View the document5. Future studies
View the document6. Conclusions
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close this folderReference data for total energy expenditure in early infancy
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View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Methods
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View the document2.1. Relationship between body weight and energy expenditure
View the document2.2. Calculations of centiles
close this folder3. Results
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View the document3.1. Relationship between total energy expenditure and body weight
View the document3.2. Construction of centiles
View the document4. Discussion
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View the documentDiscussion summarized by J.V.G.A. Durnin
close this folderBasal metabolism of infants
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Historical work
View the document2. Basal metabolism defined
View the document3. Factors which may influence basal metabolism
View the document4. Normative standards
View the documentAcknowledgments
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View the documentDiscussion (summarized by B. Schürch)
close this folderEnergy cost of various physical activities in healthy children
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Methodological considerations
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View the document2.1. Age and sex
View the document2.2. Number of children and measurements
View the document2.3. Weight, BMR and energy costs
View the document2.4. Social, nutritional, national and ethnic characteristics
View the document2.5. Description of activities
View the document2.6. Calculations and assumptions
View the document3. Results
close this folder4. Discussion
View the document4.1. Information gaps
View the document4.2. Geographic or racial differences
View the document4.3. Energy costs in relation to age and sex
View the document4.4. Suggestions to estimate the energy cost of activities
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View the documentUntitled
close this folderThe energy requirements of growth and catch-up growth
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View the document1. General concept of growth
close this folder2. Outcome variables
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View the document2.1. Height
View the document2.2. Biochemical and functional tests
View the document2.3. Weight and nitrogen balance
View the document3. General principles relating nutrients to growth
View the document4. Hierarchy of metabolic functions
View the document5. Normal growth
close this folder6. Catch-up growth
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View the document6.1. Nutritional determinants of catch-up growth
View the document6.2. Use of weight/increment in body fat
View the document6.3. Body composition during catch-up growth
close this folder7. Factors affecting net energy accretion
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View the document7.1. Limiting specific nutrient
View the document7.2. Effect of protein: Quantity and quality
View the document7.3. Theoretical model for P:E ratio
close this folder8. Extent to which colonic fermentation of carbohydrates contributes to energy requirements in childhood
View the document8.1. Colonic fermentation
View the document8.2. Energy from SCFA
View the document8.3. Factors influencing SCFA production
View the document8.4. Gross versus metabolizable energy
View the document8.5. Faecal energy and non-starch polysaccharide
View the document8.6. Faecal energy in cystic fibrosis
View the document9. Conclusions
View the documentAcknowledgements
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close this folderEnergy cost of communicable diseases in infancy and childhood
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Variation in morbidity from infectious disease
close this folder3. Effects of infection on energy status
View the document3.1. Anorexia
View the document3.2. Decreased dietary thermogenesis
View the document3.3. Cultural and therapeutic practices
View the document3.4. Malabsorption
View the document3.5. Metabolic effects
View the document3.6. Fever
View the document3.7. Additional intestinal loss
View the document3.8. Anabolic responses during infection
View the document3.9. Reduced growth and weight loss
View the document4. Reduced activity
View the document5. Energy requirements for recovery from infection
View the document6. Anabolic response
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion (summarized by B. Schürch)
close this folderEnergy-sparing mechanisms: reductions in body mass, BMR and activity: their relative importance and priority in undernourished infants and children
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Physical activity
View the document3. Basal metabolic rate and body composition
View the document4. Sequence of events during recovery
View the document6. Future research
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion (summarized by A.M. Prentice)
close this folderThe desirable upper limits of energy intake in childhood: Short- and long-term consequences
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. A conceptual approach to defining desirable intakes in infancy
View the document3. Childhood obesity and energy intake
View the document4. Individual susceptibility to obesity
close this folder5. Desirable intakes in infancy
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View the document5.1. Lower intakes on modern formulae
View the document5.2. Differences in intake of bottle-fed and breast-fed children
View the document5.3. Secular changes in intake of the breast-fed child
View the document6. Ambient temperature and diet-induced thermogenesis
View the document7. Should energy requirements be based on data for breast-fed children?
View the document8. The fat cell hypothesis
View the document9. The Dutch famine study: An early programming of adiposity?
View the document10. Links between childhood and adult obesity
View the document11. Experimental findings
View the document12. The effects of early feeding practices on the programming of metabolism
View the document13. Infant growth rates and long-term survival
View the document14. Conclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion (summarized by W. Dietz)
close this folderLong-term developmental implications of motor maturation and physical activity in infancy in a nutritionally at risk population
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Background
View the document2. A theoretical formulation
View the document3. Purpose
close this folder4. Methods
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View the document4.1. Subjects
View the document4.2. Variables and measurements
View the document5. Results
View the document6. Discussion
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion (summarized by C.M. Super)
close this folderTemperament, activity and behavioral development of infants and children
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. The concept of temperament
View the document2. Activity level as a dimension of temperament
View the document3. The behavioral assessment of activity level
View the document4. The role of activity in studies of energy expenditure/energy requirements
View the document5. Activity level and information processing
View the document6. Activity level and the influence of the child’s psychosocial environment
View the document7. Conclusions
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
close this folderThe cultural regulation of infant and child activities
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Research on culture and child development
View the document2. The developmental niche
View the document3. The regulation of infant state
View the document4. The activities of older infants and children
View the document5. Toward a typology of activities
View the documentReferences
close this folderShort- and long-term effects of low or restricted energy intakes on the activity of infants and children
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Infants and children under two years of age
close this folder3. Preschool children
View the document3.1. Short-term study in a clinical setting
View the document3.2. Longer-term study in a clinical setting
View the document3.3. Community-based studies
View the document4. School-age children
close this folder5. Short- and long-term effects
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View the document5.1. Adaptation and accomodation
View the document5.2. Reduction in energy expenditure
View the document5.3. Behavior and social performance
View the document5.4. Low physical activity and growth
View the document5.5. Reduction in physical fitness
View the document6. Conclusions
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion (summarized by N. Solomons)
close this folderThe relationship between undernutrition, activity levels and development in young children
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Functional isolation
View the document2. Definition of malnutrition
close this folder3. Severe undernutrition
View the document3.1. Developmental levels in the acute stage
View the document3.2. Behavior
View the document3.3. Relationship between development, activity and exploration
View the document3.4. Relationship between development and anthropometry
View the document3.5. Children after recovery from the acute episode
View the document3.6. Jamaican study
View the document3.7. Conclusions
close this folder4. Mild-to-moderate undernutrition
View the document4.1. Development and anthropometry
View the document4.2. Development and nutritional supplementation
View the document4.3. Activity and exploration
View the document4.4. Studies with development and behavioral measures
View the document4.5. Nutritional supplementation and behavior
View the document4.6. Summary
close this folder5. Preliminary findings from a study of nutritional supplementation and psychosocial stimulation of stunted children
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View the document5.1. Developmental levels
View the document5.2. Activity levels
View the document5.3. Relationship between activity and development
View the document5.4. Dietary intakes
View the document5.5. Conclusions
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion (summarized by B. Torun)
View the documentIndicators for the extent to which energy requirements are being met in infants and children
View the documentImplications of new knowledge for recommendations of energy intakes
View the documentImplications of new knowledge for the prevention and treatment of PEM in infants and children
View the documentImplications of new knowledge for the prevention and treatment of obesity in infants and children
View the documentNeeds and priorities for research and action from the physiological point of view
View the documentNeeds and priorities for research and action from the behavioral point of view
View the documentNeeds and priorities for research and action from the point of view of policy
View the documentList of participants

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful for the expert assistance of Linda Stuart, for the cooperation of study participants, for the laboratory and field research assistance provided by Carol Glazier and the team of student assistants, and for comments on the manuscript by Kenneth H. Brown.

This project was supported by USDA Grants 86 CRCR 1-1968 and 89-37200-4450 and a gift from the Mead Johnson Nutritional Group.