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close this bookWorkshop to Produce an Information Kit on Farmer-proven Integrated Agriculture-aquaculture Technologies (IIRR, 1992, 119 p.)
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View the documentIntegrated grass-fish farming systems in China
View the documentChinese embankment fish culture
View the documentThe V.A.C. system in northern Vietnam
View the documentFodder-fish integration practice in Malaysia
View the documentIndian integrated fish-horticulture vegetable farming
View the documentCulture of short-cycle species in seasonal ponds and ditches of Bangladesh

Integrated grass-fish farming systems in China

INTRODUCTION

Integrated fish farming refers to the production, integrated management and comprehensive use of aquaculture, agriculture and livestock with an emphasis on aquaculture. China has a long and rich history of integrated fish farming. Written records from the first and second centuries B.C. document the integration of aquatic plant cultivation and fish farming.

From the ninth century, records showed fish farming in the paddy field. From the 14th to 16th centuries, there were records of rotation of fish and grass culture; and by the 1620s, mulberry-dike fish pond, the integration of fish and livestock farming and complex systems of multiple enterprises integrated with fish farming were developed.

Integrated fish systems using grass and aquatic plants as fish feeds are commonly found in many parts of China. These systems are particularly predominant in the irrigated lowland areas of the Changjiang, Pearl and Yangtze river basins. Many of these farms are large, communal farms which are commonly found throughout China. Farmers in these areas commonly grow graminea species in various areas of their farms, including fields, small plots of unused land, pond dikes and drained ponds. The grass is then fed directly to the fish as a supplemental feed. In southern China, farmers also use available water resources, such as rivers, lakes, ditches and pools, to cultivate aquatic plants for their use as fish feeds.

Three integrated systems from China involving grass and/or water hyacinth are presented here: grassfish. water hyacinth fish and pig-grass-fish

GRASS-FISH

Grass species which can easily be produced on the farm can serve as low-cost supplemental feeds for feeding fish. Commonly cultured fish species which can feed on grass include grass, silver, big head and common carps. As seen in Figure 1, grass can be grown along pond boundaries and fed directly to fish. Grass species commonly used include Rye grass, Sudan grass and Napier grass. (See Table 1.) Figure 2 outlines a seasonal calendar for grass production within a grass-fish system.


Bid-resource flows for grass-fish system.


Fish and grass/water hyacinth production seasonal calendar.

Summary of important aquatic and terrestrial species used for grass-fish integration.

Species

Parts Used

Yield. (Fresh Wt in T/ha)

Feed Conversion Factor (Fresh)*

Rye grass
Lollum mulilflorum

Leaf & stem

75- 150

17-23

Sudan grass
Sorghum vulgare var Sudanese

Leaf & stem

150-225

19-28

Elephant grass(Napier)
Penisetum purpureum

Leaf & stem

225-450

30-40

Hybrid Napier grass
Penisetum americanum

Leaf & stem

225-300

25-30

Water hyacinth
Eichhornla crassipes

Leaf & stem

150-300

45-50

* Amount of fresh grass required to produce one kg of fish.


Monthly fish-feed requirement and average daily production of rye grass and sudan grass.

Pond sizes range from about one-half to one ha in size with water depths ranging from two to two-and a half meters. Net fish yields of up to 6T/ha have been recorded without supplemental feeding or the use of additional green or animal manures. An area roughly one-half the size of the pond is needed to produce sufficient grass for supplemental feeding. Figure 3 shows that on-farm produced rye grass and Sudan grass can be sufficient to meet fish production feed requirements. Rye grass and Sudan grass can yield up to 112 T/ha (fresh wt.) and Hybrid Napier can yield up to 300 T/ha (fresh wt.).

Stocking/harvest design for grass-fish system.

Species

STOCKING

HARVESTING


Size
(kg/fish)

Stocking
(fish/ha)

Weight
(kg/ha)

Survival (%)

Size
(kg/fish)

Gross Yield
(kg/ha)

Net yield
(kg/ha)

Grass carp

0.5

2000

1000

95

2.5

4750

3750

Silver carp

0.05

3200

160

95

0.5

1520

1360

Bighead carp

0.05

800

40

95

0.5

380

340

Common carp

0.05

2400

120

85

0.5

1020

900

Total






7670

6350

The use of cereal grains as feed supplements in fish production can be costly; thus, supplemental feeding using grass species is much more economical. Production costs related to supplemental feeds are 50% lower (per kg of fish produced) for grass-fed vs. cereal grain (barley)-fed fish.

WATER HYACINTH FISH

A variety of aquatic plants can be used as supplemental feeds in fish production; however, water hyacinth is the best. An area approximately one-half the size of the fish pond is needed to produce enough water hyacinth for supplemental feeding. Water hyacinth can produce up to 300 T/ha (fresh wt.). Net fish yields can also reach 600 T/ha without supplemental feeding or the use of additional manures. Pond sizes and stocking rates are the same as the grass-fish system. Fish input costs using water hyacinth comprise less than 15% when compared to cereal grain (barley)-fed fish.


Bid-resource flows for aquatic plants-fish system.

PIG-GRASS-FISH

Pig-grass-fish integration is widely practiced and has good economic returns. Pig excrete are applied directly to the fish ponds; but most are used as fertilizer for high-yielding fodder grasses, which in turn are used as the main feed for herbivorous fish. The excrete of herbivorous fish fertilize the pond water to support the growth of fish. The pond humus can then be used as manure for plant cultivation. Thus, the productivity of both fodder grasses and phytoplankton can be utilized.

Pig-fish and grass-fish components can be integrated to optimize the resource flows for an increased productivity. Forty-five to sixty pigs can support 1 ha of grass production (225 - 300 T Rye grass and Sudan grass) for a 2-ha pond (6000 kg/ha of fish yield).


Bid-resource flows of pig-grass-fish system.


Fertilization calendar.

Comparative production/economic data of pig-grass-fish system to pig-fish system (from 100 kg. of pig manure: 1/2 feces/1/2 urine).

Type of Fish

Fish Production in Pig -Grass -Fish system

Fish Production in Pig-Fish System

Herbivore

4.2


Filtering and Omnivore

1.5

2.5

TOTAL

5.7

2.5

% increase in yield = 133%
% increase income = 23a%

Prepared by:
HUAZHU YANG,YINGXUE FANG & ZHONGLIN CHEN

FARMER-PROVEN INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE-AQUACULTURE:
A TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION KIT (IIRR-ICLARM)

Chinese embankment fish culture

Embankment fish culture, along with bamboo and mulberry culture, is being practiced in the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta areas of central and south China for centuries. Originally, the delta was just a waterlogged area. Farmers dug and moved soil, piling them into huge rectangular or round shapes and utilized them for planting crops. The excavated areas became deeper, making them ideal for fish culture. The embankments are wide enough where mulberry, bamboo, etc., can be grown (see Figures 1& 2). The mud is scraped from the bottom of the pond and applied as fertilizer to the embankment 2-5 times annually at a rate of 750-1,125 t/ha.


A view of embankment fish culture turk system


Farm transect of embankment model.

MULBERRY PLOT-FISH POND. In this system, the mulberry leaves are used as feed for silkworms. The sericulture provides a large variety of feeds and fertilizers for fish farming.

It has been determined that 36,700 kg/ha of mulberry leaves can be produced which can yield 2,700 kg of cocoons and 18,400-18,750 kg of silkworm excrete and silkworm sloughs (molted skins). The silkworm excrete can both serve as feed and fertilizer for fish. The cocoons contain 80% pupae by weight. The feed conversion ratio of pupae to fish is 2:1 such that 2 kg of pupae can produce 1 kg of fish. All the feeds and manure from silkworm farming can support a good fish yield; the cycling process of the silkworm wastes is illustrated in Figure 3. The suggested stocking in "mulberry plot-fish pond" is listed in table 1.


The cycling process of silkworm wastes


Conversion/product/on ratio of ma materials.

Stocking for mulberry plot-fish pond.


STOCKING


HARVEST



SPECIES

Size
(fish/kg)

Weight
(kg)

Total Stocking (pcs)

Survival
(%)

Size
Kg/fish

Number of fish

Body Wt. Increment
(times)

Net Yield
(kg)

Silver carp

20

97.5

1,950

90

0.75

1,755

12.5

1,218.8

Bighead

20

22.5

450

90

0.75

405

12.5

281.2

Grass carp

2

22.5.5

450

90

1.75

405

2.15

483.8

Common carp

40

18.75

750

85

0.6

637

19.38

363.4

Crucian carp

100

19.5

1,950

95

0.2

1,852.5

18

351.0

TOTAL


383.25






2,698.2



25.55






179.88

BAMBOO PLOT-FISH POND. The produce from bamboo farming is mainly bamboo shoots. Zhangchai Township, Fusan, Guangdong province has long been processing canned bamboo shoots. It is estimated that 25-30% of the wastes and by-products could be used for fish farming. Wastes and by-products from a 1 ha harvest of bamboo shoots can produce about 500 kg of fish.

A modest estimate from the farmers of Zhangchai Township shows that bamboo production per hectare ranges between 22,500 - 26,250 annually. But when shoot production is over, the farmers harvest the old bamboo poles, totalling 52,500-67,500 kg/ha. These can be used as firewood, construction materials for livestock pens or support materials for climbing plants


Material flow in bamboo plot - fish ponds

The mud from the bottom of the pond provides a tremendous amount of compound fertilizer for the bamboo plot. In shoot production, 6,000 kg/ha of pond mud, 168 kg N. 109 kg P and 150 kg K are needed, but one fourth from the pond mud is more than sufficient to supply the needed nutrients. So, the mud nutrition cannot be fully absorbed by the plants. The farmers in Zhangchai Township realize that the shoot production is 20-30% higher in the pond plot than in hilly areas, probably because of good ventilation in between plants and adequate water and fertilizer supply. Mud application moreover impedes the growth of wild plants and improves the soil quality. "Bamboo plot-fish pond" stocking rates is illustrated in Figure 5. Table 2 shows the farming calendar in fish-sericulture-bamboo production.


Suggested stocking


Farming calendar

Prepared by: MIN KUAN HONG & HU BAOTONG

FARMER-PROVEN INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE-AQUACULTURE:
A TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION KIT (IIRR -ICLARM)

The V.A.C. system in northern Vietnam

The Vietnamese saying Nhat canh tri, cans vien says that the first profitable activity is aquaculture and the second is agriculture, horticulture or gardening. Integrated farming is a traditional approach to family food production in the poor, rural regions of Vietnam. The integration of the home lot, garden, livestock and fish pond is called the VAC system (VAC in Vietnamese is Vuon, ao, chuong which means garden/pond/livestock pen).

The widespread promotion of the VAC system, referred to as the VAC movement, began in the early 1980s after importance of small-scale integration was emphasized by the late President Ho Chi Minh in the late 1960s. The objective of the movement was to increase and stabilize the nutritional standard of the rural poor. Because of adoption of the VAC system, the dietary balance of the rural poor is significantly improved by the addition of dietary protein, particularly in the isolated villages located in the high mountainous regions.

This farming system is a family-managed, with practically all of the labor coming from the household. VAC farms can be found in a variety of agro-ecological conditions, including irrigated lowlands, rain-fed uplands and pert-urban areas.

It is estimated that 85-90% of the rural families maintain a garden and livestock pen, with 30-35% of these families having fish ponds. In many villages, 50-80% of families have the full VAC system. Figures show that 30-60% of family income of most of the village families may come from the system; in many cases, the full family income may be derived from the VAC system.


Seasonal calendar of agriculture/aquaculture activities in the uplands and lowlands.

DESCRIPTION OF THE UPLAND VAC SYSTEM (FOUND IN MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS SUCH AS HOANG LIEN SON, HA TUYEN, BAC THAI, LANG SON AND OTHER PROVINCES)

The house is constructed close to the pond so that the domestic and kitchen wastes are drained into the fishpond. The livestock pens and garden are also situated near the pond. The 1,000 - 1,500 sq m garden includes a variety of vegetables, (i.e., green onion, sweet potato, water cress, etc.) and fruits (i.e., banana, orange, peach, apricot, etc.) and other crops' including sugar cane, tea and cassava. This provides a mix of perennial and annual crops.

A portion of the livestock manure is used for manuring the trees and vegetables. Trees are manured once or twice a year; vegetables manured according to the needs of the crop. Pond silt is removed every 34 years and used as a fertilizer.


Integrated farming system (upland)

Most families keep a variety of animals on the farm, including one or more water buffaloes and cattle, one or more pigs and several ducks and chickens. The large ruminant animals are allowed to graze or are fed farm by-products. The swine and poultry are usually fed with kitchen wastes, as well as other farm products and by-products such as cassava, rice bran, sweet potato, banana trunks and water hyacinth.

The fish pond is usually allocated a more central part of the farm for better management. Pond area ranges from 100 - 1500 sq m, with a pond depth of about 1 m. Ponds are often drained after the final harvest, usually in February. The pond bottom is kept dry for 1 - 3 weeks; after which it is cleaned, limed, manured and then tilled up with water for re-stocking. Domestic washings and kitchen wastes are channeled into the pond daily. Animal manure is also applied twice a month at the rate of 0.05- 0.15 kg/sq m. Three months after stocking, farmers begin to harvest on a weekly basis using small nets and continuously re-stock and harvest the pond.

DESCRIPTION OF THE LOWLAND VAC SYSTEM (HANOI, HAI HUNG, HA NAM NINH, HAI PHONG; AND OTHER PROVINCES)

In the lowland areas of North Vietnam, the integration of the garden, livestock and fish culture is also common. Usually, houses are constructed close to the pond. In sandy regions the houses are often built at some distance from the pond for hygienic reasons.

The garden is usually small, between 400 - 500 sq m. Fruit crops commonly grown include banana, orange, papaya, peach litchi, longan and apple. In many suburban family gardens, ornamental trees and flowers are planted as a main income source. Vegetables grown include green onion, sweet potato, cress, tomato, cabbage and water spinach.´ Both perennial and annual crops are planted to provide year round food to the house and products for the market.

Pond mud is annually removed and used to manure the fruit trees and livestock manure is used to fertilize the vegetables. Pond water is used for irrigating the garden, especially the vegetables.


Integrated farming system (lowland)

Most families keep a variety of animals on the farm, including one or more water buffaloes and cattle, one or more pigs and several ducks and chickens. The large ruminant animals are allowed to graze or fed farm by-products. The livestock pens for pigs, buffaloes and cows are constructed at the corner of the garden close to the pond. The swine and poultry are usually fed kitchen wastes, as well as other farm products and by-products such as cassava, rice bran, sweet potato, banana trunks and water hyacinth.

Most families have ponds of 50 - 400 sq m, with different shapes and an average depth of 1.0-1.2 m. Ponds are drained after the final harvest (usually in January/February). The pond is then kept dry for a few days, limed, manured and re-filled with rain water or irrigation water. (Early rains may start at the end of March.) Domestic washings and kitchen wastes may be channeled into the pond with a small part of the manure coming from the livestock used to manure the pond (according to the farmer's experience). Green vegetable leaves of legumes such as peanuts, green bean leaves, etc., are also used for manuring the ponds.

Summary of the basic features of the integrated system in Northern Vietnam.

BASIC FEATURES

UPLAND

LOWLAND

Garden



1. Area

1,000 - 15,000 m²

200 - 300 m²

2. Cultivation practices

Perennials + seasonal planting of annual in March

Perennials + seasonal

- Fruit trees

Seasonal cultivation

Seasonal cultivation

- Vegetable



3. Manuring



- Fruit trees

Pond mud

Pond mud

- Vegetables

Livestock manure + Human wastes

Livestock manure + Human wastes

4. Number and Type of livestock



- Bufallo

1-3

1-2

- Cow

1-6

1-4

- Pig

1-3

1-2

- Chicken and duck

Several

several

5. Feed Resources



- Buffalo and Cow

grass, rice straw

grass, rice straw

- Pig, Chicken, Ducks

rice bran, cassava, kitchen wastes, sweet potato, banana, water, hyacinth

rice bran, cassava

Fish Pond



1.Area

100-1,500 m2

50+400m2

2.Average depth

1.0 m

1.0 - 1.2 m

3.Stocking ratio

Silver carp: 20-25%

Silver carp: 25-35%


Grass carp: 5-10%

Grass carp: 2- 5%


Common carp: 5-10%

Hybrid Common carp: 10- 15%


Rohu: 20-30%

Rohu: 20-30%


Mrigal: 20-30%

Mrigal: 15-25%

4.Stocking density

0.5-2.0 fingerlings/m

1.0-2.0 fingerlings/m²


(3-6 cm)

(5-6 cm)

5. Manuring

kitchen wastes livestock manure

Kitchen wastes


(0.05 kg/m, twice per month)

Livestock manure


green manure


6. Harvesting

Continuous harvest, after 3 months of culture

Continuous harvest

7. Estimated production

0.80-1.0 T/ha/year

1.0-1.4 T/ha/year

Prepared by: LE THANH LUU FARMER-PROVEN

INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE-AQUACULTURE:
A TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION KIT (IIRR-ICLARM)

Fodder-fish integration practice in Malaysia

In Malaysia, integrated farming systems have been practiced since the 1 1930s with the production of fish in paddy fields and pig-fish in ponds. Although research shows that these systems are technically feasible and economically viable, socioeconomic factors such as consumer preference, adoption by farmers, etc., need to be considered. Fodder-fish integration is one widely accepted system.

In the Third Malaysian Plan, fish culture is being promoted in a larger scope. Subsidies are given by the government for pond construction. Fish seed supply is provided as well as training and extension. This system benefits family consumption. It provides enough supply of protein needed by each family member. Moreover, it can be source of additional income.


Farm layout


Farm transect


Calendar of activities of fodder-fish integration option 1


Calendar of activities of fodder-fish integration option 2

The fodder-fish integration utilizes the most commonly used fodder species as fish feeds. These are: napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), cassava (Manihot esculanta) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala). These are proven to have high-diet value, high palatability and good digestibility.


Farm system

LAND PREPARATION AND PLANTING

1. Weed the land.

2. Plant fodder crops.

· Napier grass and cassava are propagated by vegetative means using mature stems. Napier grass cuttings should have 3-5 nodes, 3/4 of which is buried (at about 45° angle). Cassava planting material is 25-30 cm.

· Ipil-ipil can be direct seeded or transplanted. Direct seeding is done when annual rainfall is 1200 mm. Seedlings are best transplanted (at 2 cm depth) at the start of the rainy season.

3. Management Care

· If possible, put a fence around the area.

· Do not allow grazing of animals.

· Apply fertilizer/compost every month.

4. Harvest the fodder.

· Napier: first cutting at 7 cm from the ground (to encourage vegetative growth) 6-8 weeks after planting. Then, cut regularly every 2-4 weeks, 10-15 cm from the ground.

· Cassava: first cutting 0.5 m from the ground, 8 weeks after planting then regularly after every four weeks.

· Legumes: first cutting 8-12 months after planting, then regularly after every 8-12 weeks, 0.3 meters from the ground.

5. Feed preparation

· Leaves of these fodder crops are used as feeds. However, for cassava, the tuber can also be used. The leaves are chopped in small pieces before feeding to hatchlings or fry. For big fish, the leaves are simply placed in the pond.

FISH CULTURE SYSTEM

1. Pond Design

The pond (0.1 - 0.5 ha in size) should be established near water sources and should be free from flood or drought.

Bunds are built to separate the ponds. Bund width is between 2 - 3 m and capable of holding a water depth of 1 m.

Water is supplied through gravity flow. Screened inlet and output pipes are installed.

A feeding area within the pond is constructed (located at the side). Bamboo poles or trunks of trees can be used.

There are two types of pond:

· Nursery pond. Used for nursing 2.5 - 7.5 cm fry until the desired size is reached.

· Growout pond. Bigger than the nursery pond, it is used to raise fish up to marketable size or to grow fish for breeding.

2. Pond Preparation and System Establishment

· Drain the pond (if the pond is an old one from which the fish have been harvested). Remove silt on the pond bottom; this can be used as fertilizer.


Drain the pond

· Dry the pond bottom until the soil cracks. Plowing it first turns the soil over and facilitates drying.


Dry the pond

· Apply lime to condition the soil. Liming activates fertilizers and controls acidic soils which may harm the fish.


Apply lime to condition the soil

Quicklime is most commonly used at 200kg/ha.

· Fill the pond with water 2 weeks after liming. Water should fall from the water inlet into the pond below, so that the water mixes with oxygen from the air. Also check water condition:


Check water condition

- temperature = 22-32°C
- oxygen = 3 ppm
- pH = 6.5-3.3

· Add fertilizer to the pond to provide nutrient for fish and plankton growth. Chicken manure can be applied at the following rates:


Add fertilizer

Option 1

Nursery pond: 200 kg (first month)
Growout pond: 300 kg (first month)
300 kg (third month)
300 kg (fifth month)

Option 2

Grow out pond: 100 kg (first month)
20 kg (succeeding month)

· Stock the pond, preferably in the evening.


Stock the pond

Option 1, Grass carp is cultured in the nursery pond. After 4-6 months, the fish are transferred to the grow out pond with the big head carp and tilapia.

· Nursery pond (0.2 ha) - 500 pcs. grass carp (10 cm in size)

Grow out pond (0.3 ha)

Grass carp

500

Big head carp

100 (1.5 cm)

Tilapia

1,500 (2.5 cm)

Option 2, fish and prawn can be stocked directly to the growout pond.

Grass carp

100 (10-13 cm)

Javanese carp

300 (10-13 cm)

Freshwater giant


prawn

3,000 (1 cm)


Fish and prawn can be stocked directly

· Daily management of fish ponds.

Check the pond for leaks. Clean filters.


Check the pond for leaks

- Watch fish behavior.


Watch fish behavior

If the fish are at the pond surface, feeds are needed. If they are gasping at the surface or the prawn are in the periphery of the pond, aeration is needed. Aerate the pond by stirring the water with a tree branch.

Also, watch for predators.

- Feed the fish/prawn

Option 1: After the pond is fertilized, introduce duckweeds. Grass carp feed on duckweeds for the first month. Then, give chopped cassava leaves and napier grass. Feeding is twice a day (morning and afternoon).


Feed the fish/prawn

Upon transfer into the growout pond, feed the fish with grass and cassava leaves (200 kg/day). For tilapia, cooked maize, food left-overs and chopped cassava are given, The amount depends on the fish behavior. If the fish are still in the feeding area, more feeds are needed.

Option 2: At the start, feed the fish four times a day. Give rice bran, bread, chopped sago, cassava and napier grass.

For the fish, give feeds inside the feeding area. For the prawn, broadcast the feeds all over the pond. If there are still feeds found in the water, stop feeding.


Feeding.

· Monthly management of fish pond

- Check the pond walls and bottom. Remove any debris which might be a problem at harvest time, e.g., twigs, leaves, etc.

- Check the fertility and turbidity of the water by dipping the arm into the water. If the palm disappears before the water reaches the elbow, there is dense algal bloom.

- Check the fish carefully for any sign of disease.


Monthly management of fish pond

· About 3-4 partial harvests can be done using a sieve net before final harvest. For prawn, harvesting is after 6-7 months and 10-12 months for fish. Survival rate is about 70 - 90% for fish and about 30% for prawn.

Potentials

· Environmentally sound.

· Prawn/fish is of high (economic) value.

· Seed is easily available.

· With polyculture, different water columns are used, minimizing competition for food among different species.

· Acceptable to consumers (as against fish grown in ponds loaded with manure or sewage)

· The fodder crop can last for 5-7 years with minimum maintenance.

· System is open to the introduction of additional components at a later stage.

· Various combinations can be used to get highest yields and incomes.

Limitations:

· Cannot be applied on a large-scale basis.
· Requires high-labor inputs.

Budget of fodder-fish integration.

ITEMS

OPTION 1 (M$)

OPTION 2 (M$)

COSTS

Crops


Land clearing, burning, soil preparation,fertilizing, seeding and maintenance of 1 ha of land

300 00


Maintenance cost

150.00

150.00

Fish Seeds


Grass carp

225.00 (500 pcs)

40.00 (100 pcs)

Bighead carp

100.00 (100 pcs)


Tilapia

300.00 (1500 pcs)


Javanese carp

-

15.00 (300 pcs)

Prawn

-

120.00 (3000 pcs)

Feeds

300 00

30 00

Chicken manure

360.00


Lime

125.00


Miscellaneous

300.00


Total Expenses

1660.00

355.00

INCOME

Grass carp

180.00 (60 kg)

3200.00 (800 kg)

Bighead carp

510.00 (300 kg)


Tilapia

3240.00 (720 kg)


Javanese carp

-

180.00 (60 kg)

Prawn

-

700.00 (70 kg)

Total Income

6950.00

1060.00

Balance

5290.00

705.00

Annual Return (2 cycles/yr)

10580.00


US $ 1 - M$ 2 70

Prepared by: RAIHAN Sh. Hj. AHMAD

FARMER-PROVEN INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE-
AQUACULTURE: A TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION KIT (IIRR-ICLARM)

Indian integrated fish-horticulture vegetable farming


Fish crop farming material flow

Integration of fault plants and vegetable farming on the fish pond embankment has been tested in India and has several advantages:

· The farmer gets additional income from growing fruits and vegetables on the pond embankment which normally lies fallow.

· The nutrient-rich pond mud is used as fertilizer for growing crops, eliminating the cost of organic manures.

· Manured pond water is used for irrigation of plants.

· Fruit and vegetable residues are used as feed for the fish.

· The plants on the embankment strengthen the dikes.

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SYSTEM

Select ponds near to your house. This helps in easy management of the pond and in discouraging poachers.

Check and repair the dikes and guard the inlets and outlets with meshed screens to avoid escape of stocked fishes and entry of unwanted fish. The pond should be deep enough so that it retains more than 1 m water during the dry period.

Strengthen the dikes and terrace them for planting crops and fruit plants.


Fish culture

POND PREPARATION

Remove aquatic weeds. Compost and use them later as manure for the pond. Remove all the existing fish stock from the pond by repeated netting and draining the pond water. If it is not possible to drain the pond, kill the fishes by adding to the water 15 kg bleaching powder and 15 kg of urea (for 1000 sq m pond). Bleaching powder may be applied one day after urea application. Application of 250 kg Mahua oil cake (Basia latifolla) can also be done for the eradication of fish. Mix it thoroughly with the pond water and net all the fishes.

Manure the pond with the compost (made out of the aquatic weeds). Apply 500 kg basally; the rest (500 kg) may be applied in two equal installments at 4 months interval.

Stock the pond with fingerlings 7 days after poisoning as the toxicity of bleaching powder lasts for about one week. The recommended rates (at stocking density of 600/1000 sq m) are:

Catla

240

Catla

180

Catla

90

Rohu

180

Rohu

180

Rohu

120

Mrigal

180

Mrigal

120

Mrigal

90



Common carp

120

Silver carp

90





Grass carp

90





Common carp

120

Some alterations can be made on the stocking density and species ratio depending upon the pond conditions and availability of fish seed.

Calendar of activities for fish-horticulture farming

August

Pond preparation
Dike preparation and planting of fruits and vegetables

September

Stocking of the fish, Application of inorganic fertilizers to the crops

October

Pest control if necessary

November

Harvesting of vegetable,
Inorganic fertilizer application

December

Harvesting of vegetables

January

Harvesting of vegetables
Harvesting of papaya

February

Preparation of dike for second crop of vegetables
Harvesting of papaya
Plantation of second crop of veg.

March

Partial harvesting of fish
Harvesting of papaya & banana

April

Harvesting of papaya & banana

May

Harvesting of vegetable (P & B)

June

Harvesting of vegetable (P & B)

July

Final harvesting of fish
Harvesting of vegetable papaya and banana (P & B)

HARVESTING

The fish which attain marketable size should be harvested and the rest allowed to grow further. Final harvesting may be done 10-12 months after stocking.

CROP FARMING

The dikes are strengthened, terraced, prepared and fertilized by application of pond silt

Bananas, papayas, pumpkins, gourds, spinach, Brinjals, tomatoes, cucumbers and leafy vegetables are grown on the dikes.

Inorganic fertilizer is also applied to the plants in addition to pond silt @10 kg/year divided into installments.

Water the crops with manure pond water.

Planting of papaya is done in June/July and banana in October/November and harvesting starts after 6 and 8 months following planting, respectively. A portion of the harvested fruits is consumed by the farmer and the rest are sold in the market.

The vegetable crops are grown and harvested twice in a year—once during August/September and the second time in March/April. After meeting the requirements of the farm family, the vegetables are sold. The list of vegetables and horticultural crops grown on the pond embankments is given below.

Fruit Plants

Papaya
Banana
Coconut

Vegetable Plants

Brinjal
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Tomato
Cucumber
Pumpkin
Ashgourd
Bottle gourd
Radish
Beans
Cowpea
Ladies fingers
Colocasia and
other leafy vegetables


Crop farming

Rupee budget for fish-horticulture vegetable in 0.1 ha. Pond.

COSTS

RS

Pond preparation


15 kg. bleaching powder and 15 kg. urea at 4.15/1<9.

125

Manuring with compost from aquatic weeds - 1000 kg. 100


600 fingerlings at 250/1000

150

Labor & nets

200

Fish culture tools and equipments

25

Planting materials


10 banana suckers at 2/piece

2

20 papaya seedlings at 1/piece

2

Vegetable seeds

6

10 kg. inorganic fertilizers at 5/1<9.

50

Pesticides/Horticultural equipment

25

TOTAL COST

800

Pond rental (opportunity cost)

800

Interest on working capital @15%

165

TOTAL OPERATIONAL COSTS

1,265

INCOME


Fish sale (200 kg. at 20/kg.)

4,000

Papaya (150 kg. at 3/kg.)

450

Banana (10 bunches at 20/bunch)

200

Green vegetables (159 kg. at 3/leg.

450

BALANCE

3,835

Cash flow for integrated fish-horticulture-crop farming for 0.1 ha. Pond.


Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Inflow

0

0

0

+60

+90

+75

+75

+1075

+115

+160

+205

+3245

Out-flow

-314

- 199

-64

-49

-44

-49

-94

- 179

-44

-49

-44

136

* Cash inflow starts from the month of November, when the harvesting of vegetable is initiated.

** Cash inflow goes up to Rs 1075 in the month of March, when partial harvesting of fish is also done.

*** Cash inflow includes harvesting of second crop of vegetables from April to July.

Prepared by: S.D. TRIPATHI & B.K. SHARMA

FARMER-PROVEN INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE-AQUACULTURE:
A TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION KIT (IIRR-ICLARM)

Culture of short-cycle species in seasonal ponds and ditches of Bangladesh

Homestead seasonal ponds, ditches and road-side canals, which are formed either due to borrowing of soil for house or road construction or ponds dug for household uses (bathing, washing) or irrigation, can be used for aquaculture of short-cycle species, such as Silver barb (Puntius gonlonotus) or nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Even 80-100 sq m ditches as shallow as 70-80 cms can be used for culture of these species, using on-farm agricultural wastes and by-products, as inputs. Even ponds which retain water for only 3-4 months can be used for culture of these species. The culture practice is simple, requiring very low labor input and, hence, can be undertaken by women and children, producing fish for household consumption and for market. Landless farmers can also benefit from this technology by culturing fish in common property road-side ditches.


Material flow between homestead enterprises


Agroecosystem transect of mymensingh-sylhet flood plain area in Bangladesh.

TECHNOLOGY FOR CULTURE OF SHORT-CYCLE SPECIES

1. Pond Preparation

· Branches of trees on pond embankment should be cut or trimmed. Pond should be cleared of submerged and floating weeds as they utilize pond nutrients and obstruct penetration of sunlight into water, resuting in low production of fish food organisms.


Clearing away weeds


Trimming branches to allow sunlight

· For lowering of acidity, better utilization of fertilizer and for disinfection, lime need to be applied to the pond at the rate of 25 9 for each sq m. Spread lime on pond bottom if pond is dry or mix with water and spray if pond is with water.

2. Fertilization

· For good production of fish food organisms (plankton) in the pond on which depend growth of fish, the pond needs to be fertilized. Organic manures or chemical fertilizers can be used for the purpose. Cattle dung (100 g/sq m) or chicken manure (50 g/sq m) or urea (2 g/sq m) and triple superphosphate (5 g/sq m) need to be applied once every two weeks.

· Organic manure can be heaped in the corners of the pond while chemical fertilizers need to be dissolved in water and spread in the pond.


Fertilization

· A pond of 500 sq m needs every two weeks 25 kg of cattle dung or 15 kg of chicken manure or 1 kg of urea and 2.5 kg triple superphosphate.

3. Stocking

· Depending on farmer's choice, Nile tilapia or silver barb (P. gonionotus) can be cultured in the Pond.

· In case of Nile tilapia, 2 fingerlings/sq m, while in case of silver barb, 3 fingerlings/2 sq m need to be stocked.


Stocking

· If the pond retains water for more then 6 months, in addition to silver barb, 3 fingerlings/40 sq m of catla (Catla catla) or silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and 2 fingerlings/40 sq m of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). This will increase total fish production.

· Healthy fingerlings should be procured from a reliable hatchery or supplier. Better to stock 3-5 9 size, as they would reach table size early, especially in case of ponds which retain water for only 3-4 months.

4. Feeding

· For good production, supplementary feeds should be given in the pond. Kitchen waste, duck weeds, azolla, green leaves of kangkong, sweet potato and tender terrestrial grasses can be given. Rice bran or wheat bran wilt increase growth and production of fish.


Feeding

· Feeding should be done once or twice a day. Quantity of feed to be given increases with size of fish. A tentative schedule of feeding rice bran in a 500 sq pond is shown in chart. If kitchen wastes or weeds are given, quantity of rice bran shown in chart can be reduced.

5. Pond Management

· Green color of water indicates good production of fish food organisms (plankton). Clear water indicates lack of enough fish food. By dipping your hand in the water, seeing it half - way to the elbow indicates lack of enough fish food. In such case, increase fertilization. If the hand disappears haf-way to elbow, it indicates sufficient plankton. If it disappears after dipping the palm, it indicates plankton bloom, with deep green color and this can deplete oxygen in pond water, especially during night and cloudy days and can result in mortality of stocked fish. Stop feeding and fertilization till the water color becomes lighter.


Poor plankton


Good plankton


Plankton bloom

· Tilapia breeds in pond, leading to overpopulation. This results in poor growth of fish due to competition for food. Hence, tilapia fries which move in schools along the banks of pond can be removed, using a scoop net. They can either be sold or crushed and given as feed in the pond.

6. Harvesting

· Harvesting of fish can be started as soon as fish reach table size or when the water level in the pond goes below 4-50 cm. You can always harvest for family consumption or at one time for marketing. 75-100 kg of fish could be harvested from a 500 sq m pond in 5-6 months.


Feeding

7. Disease

· When temperature goes down to about 20°C and below during November-January, Silver barb is susceptible to ulcerative syndrome disease which starts as red spots on fish and later becomes a wound.

· When infection is seen, apply lime in pond at the rate of 25 g/sq m pond area.

Taka budget for puntius gonionotus and nile tilapia culture in a seasonal pond of 500 sq m for six months.

Costs:

PUNTIUS

TILAPIA

300 kg Cattle dung at 0.35/kg

105

105

300 kg Rice bran at 1.50/kg

450

450

Labor for pond clean) ng and harvesting

135

135

12.5 kg Lime at 3/kg

38

38

750 Fingerlings at 0.30 each

225

250

Transportation cost of fingerlings

30

30

TOTAL COSTS

983

1,008

Income:



75 kg fish at TK 40/kg

3,000

2,250

Balance:

2,017

1,242

* 1 US$ = Taka 38

Note: If on-farm sources of cattle dung and rice bran are used along with family labor, then 690 Taka can be saved which will raise the balance to 2,707 Taka for Puntius and 1,932 Taka for Tilapia.

Prepared by: MODADUGU V. GUPTA

FARMER-PROVEN INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE AQUACULTURE:
A TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION KIT (IIRR-ICLARM)