Cover Image
close this bookThe Packaging of Fruit Juice and Non-Carbonated Fruit Drinks (CDI, 1998, 87 p.)
close this folderIII. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PACKAGING
View the document(introduction...)
Open this folder and view contentsA - SHORT SHELF-LIFE FRESH PRODUCTS
Open this folder and view contentsB - LONG SHELF-LIFE PRODUCTS WITH PRESERVATIVES
Open this folder and view contentsC - LONG SHELF-LIFE PRODUCTS WITH HEAT TREATMENT PACKAGING
Open this folder and view contentsD - LONG SHELF LIFE STERILISED PRODUCTS (ASEPTIC PACKAGING)

(introduction...)

By combining the different stabilisation and packaging processes, it is possible to classify the different types of packaging as follows:

A. Pasteurisation and cold packaging/filling (short shelf-life)

B. Pasteurisation and cold packaging with chemical preservatives(long shelf-life)

C. Pasteurisation with hot packaging/filling, and eventual post-pasteurising (long shelf-life)

D. UHT or HTST treatment with sterilised packaging (long shelf-life)


This diagram is an abridged form of the following table

PRODUCTION PROCESS AND PACKAGING

Process

Shelf-life

Packaging*

Discussion

A
Pasteurisation & cold packaging

2 to 4 weeks in cold storage (+4°C to +6°C)

(1) HDPE bottle
(2) HDPE drum
(3) PS or PP pre-formed cup
(4) LDPE pre-formed pouch 1 litre
(5) Gable-top carton 1 litre

Immediately after fresh fruit juice extraction, juice is pasteurised at 80/95°C for a few seconds then cooled to +4°C and stored in an insulated tank before packaging

B
Pasteurisation & cold packaging with preservative

1 month to several months according to the level of anti-oxygen barrier

(6) LDPE pouch < 200 ml
(7) PVC bottle 1.5 litre
(8) PET bottle 1 litre

Chemical preservatives are less and less acceptable to consumers

C
Pasteurisation & hot packaging with possibility of post-pasteurisation packing + product in a tunnel

More than 3 months at room temperature

(9) Thermoformed cup 100 ml to 300 ml
(10) Doypack pouch
(11) Cheerpack pouch
(12) Glass bottle
(13) Aluminised gable-top carton
(14) Thermoformed cup
(15) Aluminised cup

- Only for acid products (pH less than 4.5)
- Post-pasteurisation is recommended for output higher than 500 l/hr

D
UHT or HTST treatment with sterilised packaging at room temperature

More than 6 months at room temperature

(16) Brick
(17) Plastic pouch
(18) Thermoformed cup
(19) Plastic bottle
(20) Bag in box
(21) CartoCan

- Undeniable advantage linked to the quality of the end-product: no chemical preservative, natural taste thanks to the very short heat treatment
- Any product can be processed with any acidity
- Disadvantage: expensive and sophisticated technology.

*numbers correspond to the appropriate technical filing-card

For each process, investment budgets vary from 1 to 20 for identical capacities. It is therefore important to understand the operations limits of each process.

(introduction...)

Definition:

Products with a shelf-life of 2 to 4 weeks which must be stored in a cold chain (temperature less than +7°C); this process is used for natural fruit juices.

This type of product has shown a marked development in Europe in recent years because of increased consumer demand for natural products.

Principle:

Most juices on the market are obtained from the extraction of pulp from fresh fruit which is then pasteurised (at temperatures between 80 and 95°C for 2 to 3 seconds) and then cooled at +4°C ("flash" refrigeration) for packaging.

A refrigerated distribution network (less than 7°C) must be used, and the shelf-life is limited to 2 to 4 weeks only. Shorter periods can be indicated in order to stimulate product sales (8 days as in the case of pasteurised milk).

Advantages:


Excellent natural tasting product, closest to fresh fruit juice

Possibility of low capacity processing plant (less than 1 000 litres per day)

Initial investment in machinery adapted to small projects with low output

Disadvantages:


Refrigerated distribution network often non-existent in Africa (to be created)

Initial investment to be made in a cold room and a refrigerated vehicle

Obligation to work with fresh fruit imposes seasonal production schedule

1. Plastic bottle


N° 1: the plastic bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 1

A - Cold packaging/short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

- Bottle bought ready to be filled or to be own-manufactured for the large capacities

The supplier must be close to the packaging plant because of transport costs

Composition

- Body of the bottle made of HDPE* or PP
- Alu lid with possible plastic plug - Label stuck on the body

HDPE and PP are not permeable to air oxygen carbon dioxide; they cannot be used for long shelf-life products

Cost price for 1 litre

HDPE: 2 to 2.20 p. (25g/bottle)
PP: 2.5 to 2.8 p.
lid: 0.6
label: 0.25
TOTAL: 5.35 p to 5.85 pence

HDPE: £0.75 to £0.88/kg of granule
PP: £1 to £1.13/kg
For bottles purchased pre-formed this price doubles: (5 pences/bottle 1 l)
For a ¼ l, 1 bottle is approx. 10 gr. = 0.75 p to 1.13 p./bottle body

Shelf-life

3 to 4 weeks in a cold chain (<7° C)

Upmarket product

Volume

Most frequently 1 litre


Bottle production

Blow moulding from 400 bottles/hr for a capital cost of £75 k for the machine + £12.5 k for the mould

Recommended for a production over 8000 bottles/day

Packaging machine output

Option 1: filling machine only from 100 bottles/hr
Option 2: filling/thermosealing machine from 800 bottles/hr


Capital investment for packaging machines

Option 1: from £62.5 k
Option 2: from £6.25 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate
Carton

Capital cost for the whole line

From £ 37.5 k for semi-automatic line

Output 150 litres/hr of pasteurised juice

Positioning of the product on the market

- High quality products, 100% natural, sold with fresh produce in supermarkets, restaurants, hotels and communities
- Cold chain distribution required

HDPE is not transparent ("milky" appearance), it may be useful to colour it for the sale of fruit juices

Positioning in relation to the environment

Incineration or recycling possible for secondary use


* For list of abbreviations see glossary

2. Plastic drum

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 2

A - Cold packaging/short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Drum with water/air-tight cap

To be purchased on the local market

Composition

HDPE*

Food quality is required

Cost price

From £ 0.25 to £ 0.625 for one drum of 5 l with cap

The drum can be re-used 10 times which means a cost price of < 0.625 pence/litre

Shelf-life

2 to 3 weeks in cold chain distribution (<7°C)

Volume

5, 10, 20 litres and more

Packaging machine output

Option 1: packaging machine is not necessary up to 1 000 l/day
Option 2: semi-automatic filling 150 to 200 drums/hr

Option 1: direct filling of the drums by pipe at the outlet of the pasteuriser

Capital investment for packaging machines

Option 1: none
Option 2: from £6.25 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

None

A self-adhesive label must be foreseen for the essential information (production date, content, etc.)

Positioning of the product on the market

- High quality products, 100% natural, sold with fresh produce in supermarkets, restaurants, hotels and communities
- Cold chain distribution required

The product is sold as a "bulk" product (interesting price for the buyer)

Positioning in relation to the environment

Re-utilisation of the empty drums after recovery and cleaning

No waste

* See glossary


N° 2: the Plastic Drum

3. Pre-formed plastic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 3

A - Cold packaging/short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Transparent or coloured cup bought "ready to fill" with the lids pre-cut to the cup size


Composition

- PS* or PP cup
- Pre-cut alu lid with a coat of special varnish corresponding to the composition of the cup (PS or PP)

It is not possible to obtain preformed cup with anti-oxygen barrier

Cost price

Cup: 1.5 to 1.88 p/unit
Lid: 1 p.
Total: 2.5 to 2.88 pence for one cup of 200 to 250 ml

- Cup manufacturers are present in some African countries - Lids must be imported

Shelf-life

2 to 3 weeks in cold chain distribution (<7°C)


Volume

125 ml/200 ml/250 ml


Packaging machine output

From 700 cups/hr up to 10 000 cups/hr

Possibility of processing less than 5000 cups/day

Capital investment for packaging machines

- 700 cups/hr (semiauto): £12.5 k
- 1 500 cups/hr (auto): £37.5 k
- 2 500 cups/hr (auto): £50 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate or carton with shrinkable film


Positioning of the product on the market

- Stands with refrigerator, itinerant vendors with insulated box, communities, hotels.
- Sells well with a straw
- Cold chain distribution required

The product can be diluted (fruit drink from concentrate for instance)

Positioning in relation to the environment

- Incinerable cup
- Recyclable alu lid


* See glossary


N° 3: the Pre-formed Plastic Cup

4. Pre-formed pouch

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 4

A - Cold packaging/short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The pouch is delivered flat with an opening for filling and sealing

Composition

LDPE* thickness 80 to 100 microns

Cost price

3.12 p. for one pouch 1 litre 1.88 p. for ½ litre

With 2 colours

Shelf-life

2 to 3 weeks in cold chain distribution (<7°C)

Volume

1 litre and ½ litre

Not available in smaller volumes

Filling/sealing machine output

Only for small capacity from 200 to 500 pouches/hr

For more than 500 pouches/hr, it is advised to use the automatic packaging machine (see filing-card 6)

Capital investment for packaging machines

Between £ 3.75 k and £ 6.25 k

The lowest investment for a packaging machine

Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate 10 to 20 litres

Positioning of the product on the market

- High quality products, 100% natural, sold with fresh produce in supermarkets, restaurants, hotels and communities
- Cold chain distribution required

As the small sizes are nonexistent the product can be proposed only to the large consumers with cooling facilities.

Positioning in relation with the environment

The best packaging material (100% incinerable without rejection of chlorine)

* For list of abbreviations see glossary


N° 4: the Pre-formed Pouch

5. Gable-top carton box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 5

A - Cold packaging/Short shelf-life

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Presentation

Gable-top carton box with square base


Composition

PE/Carton/PE*


Cost price

1 litre: 6.25 to 6.88 p. according to the supplier
¼ litre: 3.12 to 3.75 p.


Shelf-life

3 to 4 weeks in cold chain distribution (<7° C)


Volume

¼ l, ½ l, 1/1 l, 2 l,

1 & 2 litres are the most profitable and the most used

Packaging machine output

250 boxes/hr for the semi-automatic machine up to 10000 boxes/hr for the automatic one

All packaging machines use preformed carton; there are no "form, fill and seal" machines

Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 25 k for the smallest (250 boxes/hr) up to £ 625 k for the automatic one


Recommended or essential outer pack

Carton 10 to 20 litres with shrinkable film + pallet


Positioning of the product on the market

- Upmarket product mainly distributed in supermarkets, hotels, etc.
- Cold chain distribution required


Positioning in relation to the environment

100 % incinerable (good calorific power)

* See glossary


N° 5: the Gable-Top Carton Box

(introduction...)

Definition:

These products can be kept at room temperature for several months thanks to the presence of chemical preservatives. Most of these products are mainly fruit drinks with addition of sugar and water.

Principle:

This type of treatment is mainly used for fruit drinks with a greater degree of dilution; the pH being often greater than 5, it is necessary to decrease it to less than 4.2. The preservative is usually added before pasteurisation and processing is carried out at low temperature. The preservatives are selected on the basis of two criteria:

· The prevention of the development of bacteria, mould or yeasts in the product.
· The prevention of the effects of oxidation on the product.

Advantages:

· Simple technology and installation
· Possibility of packaging for low output production (reduced initial investment)
· Possibility to choose cost-effective packaging materials (PE bag)
· Product can be stored at room temperature

Disadvantage:

· Use of chemical additives (see annex 3)

6. Polyethylene film pouch

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 6

B - Cold packaging with preservative

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The pouch is pre-formed from a film, filled, sealed and dated/coded by the same machine

The film can be transparent rendering product visible

Composition

LDPE* film, thickness 70 to 90 microns

Film is presented as a reel, 18 to 20 kg, protected by a plastic envelop

Cost price

1.75 to 2 $./kg of film or 0.5 to 0.63 p. for 1 pouch 200 ml (3.5 gr.)

The least expensive packaging material; this film is manufactured in some African countries

Shelf-life

3 to 4 weeks (poor barrier to oxygen and UV rays)

Inventory turnover must be fast (max. 1 week from production to consumption)

Volume

Any volume is possible from 60 ml to 1 litre

The most common are the small volumes up to 200 ml

Packaging machine output

500 pouches/hr for the smallest, then 750, 1200, 1500, 2200 etc., up to 12000 pouches/h

All packaging machines are automatic ("form, fill & seal")

Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 12.5 k for the smallest up to £250 k for the larger packaging machines.


Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate 10 to 20 litres or plastic bags 2 to 5 litres.


Positioning of the product on the market

- The product is distributed through itinerant vendors equipped with an insulated box; this system is the cheapest and the most adapted for the informal distribution
- Can be stored in deep freezers and sold as "lolly", especially appreciated by children.

The product is first of all a refreshing drink to be sold at the best price. It is processed from fruit concentrate or flavour, strongly diluted, sweetened and sometimes coloured, then packed into very small volumes (60 to 200 ml)

Positioning in relation to the environment

The best packaging material (100 % incinerable without release of chlorine)

It is advised to provide vendors with dustbins in order to collect the empty pouches after drinking

* See glossary


N° 6: Plastic pouch from a film


N° 6: Polyethylene Film Pouch

7. PVC bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 7

B - Cold packaging with preservative

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Square, round or rectangular-shaped bottle with grooves to strengthen mechanical resistance

Dull crystalline colour which can be tinted (blue, green)

Composition

- Food "compound" composed of a blending of PVC* resins + additives (stabilisers, lubricant, anti-UV, colouring)
- PE or PP cap with inviolability device

Cost price

Approx. 0.93 £./kg foods compound for one bottle of:

Summary for 1 bottle ¼ l


- 1,5 litre (45 gr.):

4.25 p.

- body:

144


- 1 litre (30 gr.):

2.75 p.

- cap:

0.88


- ¼ litre (15 gr.):

1.44 p.

- label:

0.25


- Cap:

0.88 p.

total:

2.57 pence


- Label:

0.25 p.



Shelf-life

3 to 6 months

Impermeability and inviolability of the bottle determine good preservation and consumer security

Volume

1.5 litres, 1 l, ½ l, ¼ l

Also available in 5 & 10 litres

Bottle production

Blow-moulding from 500 bottles/hr

Packaging machine output

From 500 l/hr

Capital investment for the smallest machines

- Blow-moulding of the bottle: £ 81.25 k
- Blow-moulding of the cap: £ 110 k
- Packaging line (filling, capping, labelling) £56 k

- Price of 1 mould: approx. £5 k
- For the smallest production, it is advisable to buy the ready-made cap

Recommended or essential outer pack

Shrinkable film, carton, pallet


Positioning of the product on the market

Fruit drink mainly designed for family consumption (large volume/low cost); this type of packaging is mostly used for mineral water

More and more replaced by PET

Positioning in relation to the environment

- Manufacturing waste is reinjected into the compound
- Bottles are destroyed by incineration (problem of hydrochloric acid rejection)

PVC is now forbidden in most European countries

* See glossary


N° 7: PVC bottle

8. PET bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 8

B - Cold packaging with preservative

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Squared, round or rectangular-shaped bottle; PET* has excellent mechanical resistance and gas proof qualities; its appearance is close to glass

Bottle production is composed in 2 stages(8):
a) injection at 270°C into a mould to obtain a small-sized pre-form (see picture)
b) hot stretching of the pre-form at less than 100°C followed by the air blowing

Composition

- PET: polyethylene terephtalate
- PE or PP cap with inviolability device


Cost price

Pre-form cost:

Summary bottle ¼ litre

- 1,5 litre:

> 11.25 p.

- body:

5 p.


- 1 litre:

> 8.13 p.

- cap:

0.88


- 1/2 litre:

> 6.25 p.

- label:

0.25


- 1/4 l:

> 5 p.

total approx.

6.13 pence


- Cap:

0.88 p.

Only the larger sizes are worthwhile


- Label:

0.25 p.


Shelf-life

More than 6 months

Volume

1.5 litres, 1 l, ½ l, ¼ l, 200 ml

Packaging machine output

From 600 litres/hr

Capital investment for the smallest machines

- Bottle manufacturing plant from the pre-form 600 l/hr: £ 212.5 k
- Packaging line (filling, capping, labelling): £ 56.25 k

For a small production, it is advisable to buy the ready-made cap

Recommended or essential outer pack

Shrinkable film, carton, pallet


Positioning of the product on the market

Fruit drink designed mainly for family consumption (large volume/low cost); Competition with the drink-can (small volume)

Replaces the PVC, mainly on the mineral water market

Positioning in relation to the environment

- Possibility of recycling for the same or a secondary utilisation
- Bottles are destroyed by incineration (good calorific power)

Test-production of textile from the recycled PET fibre

* See glossary


N° 8: PET Bottle

(introduction...)

Definition:

These products are natural, with the shelf-life obtained only by heat treatment; they can be kept several months at room temperature.

Principle:

Heat-treated packaging, at temperatures between 80 and 95°C, is the oldest technique for preserving fruit juices and drinks with a pH of less than 4.5. The double effect of the heat (destruction of bacteria, mould, yeasts and enzymes) and the acidity results in preservation of the product. The previously pasteurised juice disinfects and sterilises its own packaging simply from its temperature.

For security reasons, post-pasteurisation of the product and its packaging is also recommended (at more than 80°C for several minutes). For capacities of over 2000 units per hour, post-pasteurising tunnels are also equipped with a continuous cooling section.

Advantages:


Possibility of working at a low production rate (from 200 units per hour) with a moderate initial investment (less than £ 37,500) for the combined pasteuriser-packaging machine).


Long shelf-life products


No chemical preservatives

Disadvantage:


Packaging and contents must be rapidly cooled to avoid the development of a cooked taste.

Note: Plastic bottles are not mentioned in this chapter on heat-treatment packaging. Research is currently being carried out on new compounds and new technologies capable of resisting heat without deformation while at the same time remaining impermeable to oxygen. The Sidel company has perfected a system which allows for the production of PET which is adapted to filling during heat treatment (thermofixation). A new polymer, PEN (polyethylene naphtalate)(9), when combined with PET also improves resistance. These new processes or products have not been presented in this manual because their cost is still prohibitive for the target markets. Their development should however be monitored in order to include them in future packaging selections.

9. Thermoformed plastic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 9

C - Hot Packaging/Filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The cup is pre-formed from a film reel; on the same machine, the cup is filled and closed with a lid cut out of an alu reel (form, fill & seal)

Composition

Option 1)

PS* 1,5 mm film for short-shelf life

- PS is not oxygen-proof which affects the shelf-life of the product
- EVOH is an anti-oxygen barrier


Option 2)

PS/EVOH/PE or PP/EVOH/PP film for long shelf-life



Alu film for the lid 40 microns


Cost price

Option 1)

PS film: 1.12 to 1.25 £./kg given 1.5 to 0.1.85 p./cup 250 ml

- Total for PS film: 2 to 2.38 p./cup 250 ml
- Total for PS/EVOH/PE film 3.5 to 4.25 p. for a cup 250 ml


Option 2)

PS/EVOH/PE film 2.25 to 2.5 £./kg given 3 to 3.75 p./cup 250 ml



Alu film:

0.625 £./m2 given 0.5 p/lid

Shelf-life

Option 1) less than 1 month for PS film alone Option 2) more than 6 months for film with O2 barrier

Volume

Choice from 100 to 330 ml

In order to strengthen the cup for the hot filling, grooves must be planned on the body cup; large sizes (½ l & 1 l) are difficult to obtain for that reason

Packaging machine output

From 5000 cups/hr up to 50000

"Form, fill & seal" machine with high output because of the high investment

Capital investment for packaging machines

More than £ 250 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

- Grouping under a carton sheet by 6, 12, 24, packs etc.
- Shrinkable film
- Plastic crate

Positioning of the product on the market

The cup is used as a glass; any market segment can be approached, including the informal circuit


Positioning in relation to the environment

- The cup is incinerable
- The lid is recyclable


* See glossary


N° 9: Thermoformed plastique cup


Refrigerator for distribution

10. Doypack aluminium coated bag

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 10

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

"Stand-up" pouch
Available also with a cap

The "Doypack" pouch was invented by the President of Thimonnier, Mr Louis Doyen, in 1964 and is now commercialised by several companies

Composition

Option 1)

3 coats: PE 100 microns/ALU 12 microns/PET 12 microns*



Option 2)

PET/EVOH/PE 12 microns



Option 3)

PET/PE


Cost price

Option 1) & 2)

3.12 to 3.75 p./pouch 200 ml without cap

The cost price is decreased by approx. 50% in case of own manufacture of pouches


Option 3)

2.5 to 3.12 p./pouch 200 ml


Shelf-life

Option 1) et 2)

1 year with hot filling & post-pasteurisation



type 3)

up to 3 months

Volume

0,1 to 5 litres; the most frequent are 200 & 250 ml for fruit juices

Packaging machine output

- From 300 pouches/hr for the smallest one up to 12 000 pouches/hr
- The pouch processing machine starts at 5000 pouches/hr

- For the lower output, the preformed pouch must be purchased
- For the highest output, the manufacturing of the pouches is advised with a special machine form/seal which can be separated or integrated into the filling machine.

Capital investment for packaging machines

- From £ 12.5 k for filling & sealing machines
- From £ 112.5 k for pouch manufacturing

- Well adapted to any type of industry including the micro-projects

Recommended or essential outer pack

- Grouping of 10 to 20 pouches into a plastic bag or
- Shrinkable film

The plastic pouch is certainly the simpler and the less expensive system (one pouch is not more than 1.25 p.)

Positioning of the product on the market

Can be adapted to a wide range of products (natural juices, tomato sauce, detergents, dairy products, olives, etc.)

Certainly the best known and the most developed system in Africa; also in development in Europe

Positioning in relation to the environment

Problem with aluminium; the full plastic pouches are better

For aluminium, possibility of using the ashes in concrete after incineration

* See glossary


N° 10: Doypack pouch

11. Cheerpack aluminium coated bag

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 11

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Flexible packaging with a special cannula made of PE* and a cap for hermetic closing

Original patent belongs to Hosokawa Yoko (Japan) and is exploited by the Gualapack company in Europe and Africa

Composition

The material is composed of 4 layers of PET 12 microns/ALU 9 microns/PET 15 microns/PE 70-100 microns

Possibility of 3 layers PET/ALU/PE for hot packaging and PET/ALU/OPA/PE for isotonic drinks and tea

Cost price

8.75 to 10 pence/pouch 200/330 ml


Shelf-life

Up to 1 year with post pasteurisation


Volume

Sizes from 100 to 1 000 ml


Packaging machine output

1800 pouches/hr.


Capital investment of packaging machines

More than £ 62.5 k

Adapted to the capital investment of small & medium enterprises

Recommended or essential outer pack

- Lost cartons of 12 to 24 packs
- Returnable plastic crates


Positioning of the product on the market

Individual doses used in Europe for fruit juice, tea, sports drinks

Good replacement for the tin can but new product. No reference in Africa in 1996

Positioning in relation to the environment

Good results in terms of weight, energy consumption, air & water pollution in comparison to bricks and glass or plastic bottle

Problem of aluminium during incineration

* See glossary


N° 11: "Cheerpack" alu pouch - A


N° 11: "Cheerpack" alu pouch - B

12. Glass bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 12

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Classical glass with large neck and closure by "twist off" cap for the largest volumes (1 litre); 250 ml bottles with crown cap.

The supplier must be available in the country in order to avoid the expensive transport of empty bottles

Composition

Thick glass in order to resist to thermal shock during hot filling

The supplier must be informed if it is returnable or a non-returnable glass

Cost price

25 cl: 5 p. to 6.25 p.
1 l: 10.5 to 13.75 p.
cap: 0.63 to 1 p.
crown cork "twist off": 1.25 to 2 p.
label: 0.25 F.

- 20% must be added for the returnable glass (more resistant)
- Cost of ¼ litre with label & cap: 5.88 to 7.5 p.

Shelf-life

More than 6 months
Tinted glass improves shelf-life (protection against U.V.*)

Special attention to the "Twist-off" cap: a device for inviolability of the cap must be designed (shrinkable film or paper strip)

Volume

20, 25, 50 cl & 1 litre are the most frequent


Packaging machine output

Option 1)

filling and capping machine from 100 bottles/hr

For the returnable glass, a cleaning/drying machine must be foreseen from 2000 bottles/hr capacity


Option 2)

filling/capping from 800 bottles/hr


Capital investment of packaging machines

Option 1)

from £ 6.25 k

For the output > 2000 bottles/hr possibility to buy own mould in order to manufacture personalised bottles


Option 2)

from £ 62.5 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate or carton with separations in order to protect the bottles against the shock


Positioning of the product on the market

Luxury product; the highest volumes are sold in supermarkets, the smallest in bars, restaurants, etc.

In case of returnable glass, the average number of rotations (cleaning/marketing/way back) varies from 8 to 10

Positioning in relation to the environment

100% recyclable glass

Frequent secondary utilisation by the consumers as container (mainly the 1 l bottle)

* See glossary


N° 12: Glass bottle

13. Gable-top carton box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 13

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Gable-top carton box with square base


Composition

PE/ALU/Carton/PE*


Cost price

1 litre:

10 p to 15 pence depending on the supplier

Option: easy opening and closure (additional cost of 2 p. to 3.12 p.)


½ litre:

7.5 to 8.75 p.



¼ litre:

5.6 to 6.8 p.


Shelf-life

More than 6 months

Volume

¼ l, ½ l, 1/1 l, 2 l, 5 l

The most profitable and most used are the 1 & 2 litres

Packaging machine output

250 boxes/hr semi-automatic up to higher output of 10000 boxes/hr in automatic

All packaging machines use preformed carton; "form, fill & seal" machines do not exist

Capital investment of packaging machines

From £ 25 k for the smallest (250 boxes/hr) up to £ 250 k for the highest output

Thanks to the small packaging machines, a small enterprise can propose an end-product similar to those proposed by a big company

Recommended or essential outer pack

Carton from 10 to 20 litres with shrinkable film

Positioning of the product on the market

Upmarket product mainly distributed in supermarkets, hotels, planes, etc.

Positioning in relation to the environment

Problem of the multilayer carton/plastic/alu

Refuse from incineration can be used in concrete production

* See glossary


N° 13: Gable-Top Carton Box

14. Tin can

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 14

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The drink can is made either of steel or aluminium with an "easy open" system

The weight of the tin can of 330 ml came down from 27 gr. in 1992 to 18 gr. in 1995; the new diameter 2"2/16 (nr 202) is progressively replacing the 2" 6/16(10)

Composition

- Steel can composed of 3 parts: lid + bottom + body
- Alu can composed of 2 parts: body + bottom (embossed) and the lid

Market is shared roughly between 50% for the steel can & 50% for the alu can

Cost price

Between 6.88 et 8.12 p. for one complete can 300 ml (cost price of alu rose up from US$ 1100/T in 1994 to US$ 2000 in 1995)(10)

Minimum order 1 million cans per term or 4 million cans per year

Shelf-life

1 year and more


Volume

20 cl, 33 cl, 50 cl


Packaging machine output

From 5000 cans/hr

Packaging is conducted in 2 steps: filling & seaming

Capital investment of packaging machines

More than £ 187.5 k for a minimum output of 4000 cans/hr


Recommended or essential outer pack

Thermo-shrinkable film for grouping 10 cans or carton + palletisation


Positioning of the product on the market

This type of packaging is well developed for soft drinks (carbonated) and is also starting to get success for juices in Europe


Positioning in relation in the environment

Steel can be collected from the garbage dump by using an electro-magnet and is entirely recyclable



N° 14: Tin Can

15. Metallic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 15

C - Hot packaging/filling

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Neutral metallic cup bought ready to be filled together with printed lids pre-cut to the diameter of the cup

Must be imported; the empty cups can be fitted into each other in order to decrease the volume for transport

Composition

- 100% aluminium for the cup
- The pre-cut alu* lid is covered with a special varnish

Good barrier to light & oxygen

Cost price

- cup 200 ml:

3.5/3.75 p.



- lid:

1.25 p.



- total:

4.75 to 5 pence


Shelf-life

1 year and more

Volume

Any volume available from 10 ml to 270 ml

Packaging machine output

From 700 cups/hr up to 10 000 cups/hr

Packaging machines are similar to those for the preformed cups (filing-card 3)

Capital investment of packaging machines

- 700 cups/hr (semi-auto.):

£ 12.5 k



- 1500 cups/hr (auto):

£ 37.5 k



- 2500 cups/hr (auto):

£ 50 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate or carton with shrinkable film


Positioning of the product on the market

Upmarket product for hotels, planes, supermarkets...

Distribution with a straw is recommended

Positioning in relation to the environment

Cup & lid are recyclable


* See glossary


N° 15: Metallic Cup

(introduction...)

Definition:

Sterilised packaging treatment was developed by Tetrapak in the mid-1960s for the preservation of milk (140°C in 5 seconds).

For reasons of quality, this process has been adopted by practically the entire milk industry and is now being considered by manufacturers of fruit juices. In effect, the product is heated for a very short time - less than a minute - compared to the long heating treatment for the hot filling system. The shelf-life is also several months at room temperature.

Remark: For acidic products (pH < 4.5), a heat treatment at 90/95°C during a few seconds is enough (HTST), but for products with a higher pH (pH > 4.5) a UHT treatment is necessary.

Principle:

The product (juice) is treated at a high temperature (from 95 to 140°C) for several seconds in order to destroy bacteria, yeasts and mould, and to deactivate the enzymes responsible for undesirable reactions during storage. After rapid cooling at 20/30°C, the treated product is packaged. The packaging machine must therefore include a special section in which all the procedures of filling and closing the packaging are executed in an environment free of bacteria and any other contaminants. The packaging itself must be disinfected to ensure that it is also free of any contamination (oxygen peroxide, ultraviolet, hot air, etc.).

To avoid all risk of contamination (a single bacteria can corrupt the package), sophisticated techniques must be adopted (automation, integrated cleansing, etc...) which requires production rates of at least 4000 units per hour.

Advantages:

· Improved preservation of natural taste due to the short sterilising treatment and subsequent rapid cooling.

· A completely natural product without chemical preservatives.

· The possibility of using packaging materials other than glass or metal, i.e. compound cardboard and multi-layer plastics.

Disadvantages:

· High investment costs (more than £ 625,000 for the combined UHT steriliser/aseptic packaging machine).

· High production rates.

· Sophisticated technology necessitates a highly trained labour force (production and maintenance).

· Steril working conditions at the packaging level.

16. ''Brick'' carton box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 16

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Parallelepiped box shaped either from a film (Tetra Pak or International Paper) or from a pre-formed carton box (Combibloc)

The most developed shape for juice packaging in Europe.

Composition

PE/ALU/PE/CARTON/PE* multilayer


Cost price

-1 litre:

8.12 to 11.25 p. for one brick (price is variable according to the purchased quantity)

- Price depends on the thickness of the layers and number of colours on the design
- Option: Spout with cap - add approx. 0.87 p. (0.5 p. for the straw)


-1/2 l:

6.25 to 7.12 p.



- ¼ l:

5 to 5.62 p.



- option:

spout with cap


Shelf-life

More than 6 months

Volume

0.2, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 litre

Packaging machine output

From 3000 bricks/hr

Capital investment of packaging machines

From £ 500 k
Possibility of leasing or purchasing of refurbished machine

Break-even point: production of a minimum of 10 millions bricks/year

Recommended or essential outer pack

Palletisation with shrinkable film Carton box or crate

Very easy storage system because of the shape.

Positioning of the product on the market

The conventional brick has been on the market for more than 20 years; it is considered as the wide-scale packaging system for the common consumer products

New shapes ("bottle box" from Combibloc, "Slim" from Tetra Pak) and the easy opening/closures systems are trying to revive its market

Positioning in relation to the environment

Problem of multilayer carton/plastic/alu

Incineration refuse can be used in concrete production

* See glossary


N° 16 "Brick" Carton Box

17. Plastic pouch

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 17

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The pouch is pre-formed from a film, sterilised, filled, sealed and dated/coded on the same packaging machine


Composition

Option 1)

PEBD film 80 to 100 microns*

Film is presented as a reel 18 to 20 kg, protected by a plastic envelop


Option 2)

PEBD/EVOH/PEBD or PEBD/OVA/PEBD film


Cost price

Option 1)

£ 1.75 to 2/kg of film, i.e. for one 200 ml pouch of 3.5 gr., a price of 0.63 to 0.75 p.

Option 1 is the least expensive of all the packaging materials. Available in some African countries


Option 2)

£ 4.38 to £ 4.88/kg, i.e. 1.5 to 1.63 p. for one pouch


Shelf-life

Option 1)

3 to 4 weeks at room temperature



Option 2)

more than 6 months


Volume

Any size is possible from 100 ml to 1 litre

The most common are the small volumes up to 250 ml.

Packaging machine output

The smallest one produces 2000 pouches per hour

All the packaging machines are automatic ("form-fill & seal)

Capital investment for packaging machine

From approx. £ 250 k

The cheapest investment for the sterile packaging system

Recommended or essential outer pack

Plastic crate 10 to 20 litres or bags 2 to 5 litres in case of export or far-off transport.


Positioning of the product on the market

- In small volumes, the product is distributed by vendors equipped with an insulated box
- The least expensive and the best adapted for the informal distribution circuit
- Can be stored in the deep-freezer and sold as a "lolly", especially appreciated by children
- In large volumes (1l), can be sold in supermarkets

Same as the PE pouch with cold filling but the end-product is of better quality as there is no chemical preservative

Positioning in relation to the environment

The best of all packaging material (100 % incinerable without rejection of chlorine)

It is advised to provide vendors with dustbins in order to collect the empty pouches after consumption

* See glossary


N° 17: Plastic pouch


Coextruded film

18. Thermoformed plastic cup

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 18

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

The cup is pre-formed from a reel of film; on the same machine, the cup is filled, then sealed with a lid pre-cut from a reel (form, fill & seal) in a sterile room


Composition

1) PS/EVOH/PE or PP/EVOH/PP film for long shelf-life
2) Alu film for lid 40 microns

- EVOH is an anti-oxygen barrier

Cost price

1) PS/EVOH/PE film at £ 2.25 to 2.50/kg or 3 to 3.75 p./cup of 250 ml
2) Film alu: 62.5 p./m2 or 0.5 p./lid

-Total 3.5 to 4.25 p./cup of 250 ml

Shelf-life

More than 6 months


Volume

From 100 to 330 ml

In order to strengthen the cup for the hot filling, grooves must be planned on the body of the cup; for this reason the large sizes (½ l & 1 l) are difficult to obtain

Packaging machine output

From 5000 cups/hr up to 50000

"Form, fill & seal" packaging machine with high output only because of the high investment cost

Capital investment for packaging machines

More than £ 375 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

- Grouping under a carton sheet by 6, 12, 24, packs, etc.
- Shrinkable film
- Plastic crate


Positioning of the product on the market

The cup is used as a glass; any sale area can be approached, including the informal circuit


Positioning in relation to the environment

The cup is incinerable
The lid is recyclable

* See glossary


N° 18: Thermoformed plastic cup


Multilayer film roll

19. Plastic bottle

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 19

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Bottle with different shapes and different compositions


Composition

PE/EVOH/PE* or PE/EVOH/PET

Oxygen-proof polymers often carry commercial names (e.g. Barex)

Cost price

6.88 to 8.12 pence./bottle of 1 litre


Shelf-life

More than 6 months


Volume

1 litre 1,5 litres

Packaging machine output

From 8000 bottles/hr

Injection of inert nitrogen into the space between the liquid and the cap

Capital investment for packaging machines

More than £ 1000 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

Carton or shrinkable film + palletisation

Positioning of the product on the market

Quality product without chemical preservative

Relatively new system on the European market

Positioning in relation to the environment

Recyclable or incinerable


N° 19: Plastic Bottle

* See glossary

20. Bag in box

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 20

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Plastic pouch in different sizes placed in a strong container such as a carton box, plastic container, etc.


Composition

Laminated film with 3 layers LDPE/metallic PET/LDPE* (50/12/50 microns) pre-sterilised at 15 Kg ray

Same film or pre-sterilised nylon/PA/PE for possibility of hot filling

Cost price

- 10 L:

> £ 0.63

Price ex-work


- 20 L:

> £ 0.75



- 200 L:

> £ 3.12



- 1000 L:

> £ 16.25


Shelf-life

1 year with sterilised process and heat treatment

In case of hot filling, shelf-life is between 3 and 5 months.

Volume

From 2 to 1000 litres

Packaging machine output

From 3000 to 6000 litres/hr

Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 62.5 k to £ 175 k

Recommended or essential outer pack

- The carton box for packs between 3 & 30 litres
- The metallic drum for 55/60 Gallons
- The rigid plastic, stainless steel, or wood container for 500/1000 L

Positioning of the product on the market

- Small volumes are designed for hotels, communities, restaurants
- Large volumes are for industries, especially for export

- Products are always 100 % fruit, natural, upmarket
- Storage containers of 1000 litres can be used for storage of juice or pulp during the fruit gathering period and for packaging the end-product during the off-season (e.g. mango fruit)

Positioning in relation to the environment

All the films can be recycled or incinerated for energy recovery


* See glossary


N° 20: "Bag in Box"

21. ''Cartocan''

TECHNICAL FILING-CARD N° 21

D - Aseptic packaging

DATA

DESCRIPTION

REMARK

Description

Cylindrical packaging processed from carton

Opening by "Pull Tape" (spline to be pulled out)

Composition

Laminated carton with EVOH/PE* coat

Possibility of addition of one coat of alu for shelf-life higher than 3 months

Cost price

The can is composed of 4 parts (body + bottom + lid + spline): 5 to 5.6 pence


Shelf-life

- 3 months for cans without alu
- More than 6 months with alu


Volume

150 to 500 ml

Packaging machine can be adjusted to obtain several sizes

Packaging machine output

From 7500 cans/hr


Capital investment for packaging machines

From £ 1250 k


Recommended or essential outer pack

The CartonCan is identical to the metallic can

Positioning of the product on the market

Supermarkets, hotels

Convenient and new form and size (new image)

Positioning in relation to the environment

Recyclable and easy for incineration in the case of cartocan without alu

The plastic material can be easily separated from the carton

* See glossary


N° 21: "Cartocan"