|Boiling Point No. 33 - May 1994 Number 33 (ITDG, 1994, 36 p.)|
Cooking with Less Fuel
The Bellerive Foundation, Kenya, 1993. 17pp.
This is a very attractive booklet which aims 'to assist those persons who are in a position to advise people how energy can be saved in the kitchen'. It is in two parts: 'Efficient cooking practices', and information about nine Kenyan 'improved stoves'.
The first section gives advice on six different ways of saving fuel, when cooking with a stove or three-stone fire. It reminds stove 'experts' that there is at least as much fuel-saving potential in cooking methods as there is in improved stoves. This depends, of course, on persuading people to change their cooking habits. Bellerive encourages people to:
· Use dry and cut firewood;
· pre-soak the food;
· cut food into smaller pieces;
· use lids on pots;
· simmer gently; do not boil food
· put out the fire when not cooking.
Perhaps someone should write a song about this sixfold way to popularize fuel-saving methods.
The stove descriptions are full enough to let the reader know which stoves are in use in Kenya, without giving details of their design, construction, relative fuel-efficiency and smokiness, and disadvantages. Such details of stoves which are being accepted widely can be found in Boiling Point 'Stove Profiles' and elsewhere, but there is still a need for such information to be combined, in a standardized form, on a regular basis in one publication.
The page reproduced below shows the clear, simple presentation and attractive layout of the booklet; it is produced on stiff, coloured, glazed card, making it very durable.
For further information or copies contact: Matthew Owen, Bellerive Foundation, PO Box 42994, Nairobi, Kenya.
The design and diffusion of improved cooking stoves 20 pp. Kirk Smith et al.
This is the latest (July 93) of the many excellent papers produced by Kirk Smith and his colleagues, setting out the continuing case for more and better improved stove programmes. He identifies the weaknesses in many of the unsuccessful programmes, and suggests ways in which they should be planned to ensure a higher success rate, more acceptable stoves, and wider dissemination. He pinpoints the great potential benefits, and the relatively small amounts of global investment made so far in this basic and worldwide use of energy.
Contact ESMAP, The World Bank, 1818H Street, NW Washington DC20433, USA for copies.
Dissemination for Household Technologies - Guidelines for Projects and Decision Makers by Petra Wagner: HEP/G7Z. 36 pp. For a copy write to HEP/GTZ, Postfach 5180, D6236 Eschborn 1, Germany.
Following the issue of Boiling Point (Number 30, April 1993) which focused on 'Sales and Subsidies', the GTZ/HEP staff decided to reconsider its extension strategies and methods. Opponents of household energy projects often criticise extension activities as unnecessary if the technology is sound. If the household technology being promoted is cheap, profitable and user-friendly then its dissemination should occur without external assistance.
The outcome of this debate was the booklet entitled Dissemination of Household Technologies - the commercial, the semi-commercial and the self-help approach. This booklet presents the most important strategies already tested and proven in technical co-operation projects, and serves as a guideline for those interested in extension work. In addition, it gives practical information on how to choose appropriate extension activities within the framework of specific projects.
Experience has shown that there are three alternative concepts for successful extension work: the commercial, semi-commercial and self-help approaches. 'Success' in extension work is not measured purely by the number of improved stoves disseminated, but rather by the sustainability of the technology and programme. Technologies should not be offered in isolation, but rather as part of the integrated programme involving kitchen management, hygiene, nutrition, energy supply and women's welfare.
All three approaches recognize this, even if they do so with emphasis on different areas, depending on the aims of the project, the target group, and its economic, ecological and social framework. Before selecting an extension strategy appropriate information has to be collected and the corresponding preliminary studies carried out. This booklet contains key questions and cites methods which can be applied.
The three extension approaches are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The commercial approach, which sells the technology at unsubsidised market prices, is appropriate for the more affluent urban population. The semi-commercial extension approach addresses users in rural areas as well as those in city suburbs who may not have a regular income, and so purchase parts of the technology (eg, ceramic inserts for improved stoves) and then use their own resources to complete the construction of the stove. The self-help approach is for people in the rural areas who may have no financial resources and therefore construct their own mud stoves.
The needs of other groups must also be taken into account: the producers and marketers of household technologies and the partner organisations and institutions, which are interested in supporting their other activities in the household energy sector.
The booklet contains examples of projects supported by GTZ, using the above mentioned extension approaches.
Do people change their diets to save fuel?
Boiling Point and Food Chain (the journal of ITDG's AgroProcessing Programme), are planning a joint issue which will examine the links between diet, nutrition, and fuel types. Any contribution on this topic will be warmly received. Contributions should reach us by September 1994.