Cover Image
close this bookBio-Intensive Approach to Small-Scale Household Food Production (IIRR, 1993, 180 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderIntroduction
View the documentCharacteristics of the bio-intensive approach to small-scale household food production
View the documentWhy household food security through gardens makes sense?
View the documentInformation, education and communication approaches to household vegetable gardening
View the documentThe household as a production and consumption unit
View the documentDefinitions of homegardens
View the documentVegetables throughout the year
close this folderStarting a biointensive garden
View the documentLayout for a small-scale, household level vegetable production plot
View the documentTechnological profile
View the documentThe rationale for deep-dug and raised beds
View the documentWhy deep-dug beds are important?
View the documentDevelopment of rooting systems
View the documentRaised-bed garden technologies
View the documentIntegrated alley cropping bio-intensive garden
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close this folderSoil management
View the documentKnow your soil
View the documentDiscovering your soil type firsthand
View the documentSoil modifiers
View the documentNutrient composition of various organic materials
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close this folderComposting methods
View the documentConventional method of compost preparation
View the documentThe 14-day method of composting
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View the documentDeep bed composting
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View the documentBasket composting
View the documentLiquid fertilizer
View the documentFish emulsion as plant food for bio-intensive garden
close this folderGreen manuring
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentNitrogen-fixing trees
View the documentCharacteristics of Some Nitrogen-fixing Trees
View the documentCover crops
View the documentSome cover crops successfully used by farmers
View the documentCover crops as soil conditioners
View the documentNutrient requirement of vegetables
close this folderSeed and seedling management
View the documentSaving seeds through gardener curators
View the documentWhy producing your own vegetable seeds is important?
View the documentTraditional or indigenous seeds
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View the documentSite selection and timing of seed production
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close this folderCrop management
View the documentCrop planning
View the documentUsing the fenceline for planting annual and perennial crops
View the documentCompanion plant guide chart
View the documentVegetables that can be harvested in less than a month
View the documentShade-tolerant vegetables
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View the documentMulching
View the documentThe role of organic mulches
View the documentSome tropical materials for use as mulch
View the documentGardening in dry environments
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close this folderPest management
View the documentSome common garden pests
close this folderAlternative pest management
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCultural method of pest control
View the documentBiological pest control
View the documentEncouraging predators
View the documentBotanical pest control
close this folderHandling of garden produce
View the documentConserving and safeguarding quality and freshness of garden produce
View the documentNon-refrigerated storage
close this folderNutritional dimension of bio-intensive gardening
View the documentSustaining gardens as nutrition
View the documentVegetables for family nutrition
View the documentVitamin A content of some local foods in serving portions compared with recommended dietary allowances for various age groups
View the documentIron content of some local foods in serving portions compared with recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for various age groups
View the documentVegetables containing iodine
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View the documentNeglected annual vegetables
View the documentMaintaining the nutritional value of vegetables: Food preparation tips

Botanical pest control

Fungicidal Plants¹

Plant Name²

Part(s) Used

Mode of preparation and application³

Target Pest(s)

Diseases Controlled

Allium sativum

cloves

Chop finely, soak in 2 teaspoons of oil for one day,

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Garlic)


then mix with half a liter of soapy water and filter.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye



Mix 1 part solution with 20 parts water, then spray.

Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge




Curvularia

leaf spot, leaf blight




Diplodia

fruit and stem rot




Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,




Helminthosporium

wilt, curly top




Pestalotia

leaf blight





leaf spot

Cassia alata

leaves

Extract juice and spray at a rate of 1 cup juice/liter water.

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Acapulco)



Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye




Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge




Diplodia

fruit and stem rot




Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,




Helminthosporium

wilt, curly top




Pestalotia

leaf blight leaf spot

Amaranthus gracilis

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Amaranth)


liters of water, and spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye




Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge




Curvularia

leaf spot, leaf blight




Helminthosporium

leaf blight




Pestalotia

leaf spot

Leucaena leucocephala leaves

Pound, soak in small amount of water, and use

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot


(Ipil-ipil)


infusion as spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye




Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge




Curvularia

leaf spot, leaf blight




Helminthosporium

leaf blight




Pestalotia

leaf spot

Allium cepa

bulb

Chop finely, soak in two teaspoons of oil for 1 day,

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Red onion)


then mix with half a liter of soapy water and filter.

Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge



Mix 1 part solution with 20 parts water, then spray.

Curvularia

leaf spot, leaf blight




Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,




Helminthosporium

wilt, curly top




Pestalotia

leaf blight





leaf spot

Moringa oleifera

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Drumstick/Horseradish)

liters of water, and use as spray.

Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge





Diplodia

fruit and stem rot




Pestalotia

leaf spot

Impatiens balsamina

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Kamantigi)


liters of water, and use as spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye




Helminthosporium

leaf blight

Centella asiatica leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,


(Takip-kuhol)


liters of water, and use as spray.

Helminthosporium

wilt, curly top





leaf blight

Jatropha multifida

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Diplodia

fruit and stem rot

(Mana)


liters of water, and use as spray.

Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,





wilt, curly top

Gendarussa vulgaris

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Bunlao)


liters of water, and use as spray.

Colletorrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge






Carica papaya

leaves

Pound, soak in water, and use infusion as spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Papaya)



Diplodia

fruit and stem rot

Mimosa pudica

whole plant Pound, soak in water and use infusion as spray.

Diplodia

fruit and stem rot


Sensitive plant



Pestalotia

leaf spot

Artemisia vulgaris

leaves

Extract juice and use as spray at the rate of 2-5

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Damong Maria)


tablespoons juice/liter of water.



Zingiber officinale

rhizome

Extract juice and use as spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Ginger)





Gliricidia septum

leaves

Extract juice of l kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Kakawate)


liters of water, and use as spray.



Coleus scutellarioides

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Mayana)


liters of water, and use as spray.



Vitex negundo

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Lagundi)


liters of water, and use as spray.



Blumea balsamifera

leaves

Extract juice and spray at a proportion of 1 part juice

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Sambong)


and 1 part water



1 Plant species showing; activity against different fungal pathogens at two days incubation after seeding, based on zone of inhibition. (Data from Quebral, 1981)





2 Plant names in italics are scientific names; those in parenthesis are common/local names.





3 Based on indigenous practice of farmers.





Insecticidal, Plants

Name of Plant²

Part(s)

Mode of Preparation and Application³

Pest(s)4

Source 5


Used









Aegeratum conizoides

leaves


diamond backmoth Alcantara, 1981


(goat weed)



cotton stainer







Artemisia vulgaris

leaves

Pound, extract juice and spray at a rate of 24

corn borer

Calumpang, 1983

(damong maria)


tablespoons/16 liters water








Lantana camara flowers

Pound and spread around stored grains

corn weevil

Fuentebella & Morallo


(lantana)




Rejesus, 1980






Derris philippinensis

roots

Extract juice and spray at a rate of 5 cups juice/5 gallons of water; or Powder,

diamond backmoth

Maghanoy & Morallo

(tubli)


mix with detergent and spray at a rate of 120 grams powder + 250-300 grams


Rejesus, 1975



detergent/4 gallons of water








Tithonia diversifolia

leaves

Pound, extract juice and use as spray at a rate of 1-2 kg fruits/liter of water

cotton stainer

Cariamp; Morallo

(wild sunflower)



black army worm

Rejesus, 1982




diamond backmoth


Tagetes erecta

roots

Extract juice and spray at a rate of 24 tablespoons juice/liter of water

rice green leafhopper

Morallo-Rejesus &

(marigold)



brown planthopper

Eroles, 1978




diamond backmoth

Morallo-Rejesus &




black bean aphid

Decena, 1982






Tagetes patula

roots

Pound, extract juice of 1 kg roots and mix with 1 liter water, then spray the

green aphid

Morallo-Rejesus &

(French marigold)


solution directly into the soil

less grain borer

Silva, 1979






Tinospora rumphii

vines

Extract juice and spray at a rate of 15-20 tablespoons juice/5 gallons water

diamond backmoth

del Fierro & Morallo

(makabuhay)



rice green leafhopper

Rejesus, 1976





Morallo-Rejesus &





Silva, 1979






Piper nigrum

fruits

Pulverize seeds, mix with water and spray; powder and spread around stored

cotton stainer

stainer & Morallo

(black pepper)


grains

diamond backmoth

Rejesus, 1982




common cutworms

Ponce de Leon, 1983




corn weevil







Capsicum frutescens

fruits

Pound, extract juice and spray at a rate of 2-3 cups fruit/liter of water

rice moth

Ponce de Leon, 1983

(hot pepper)










Annona squamosa

seeds

Powder and disperse in water, then strain and use as spray

rice pests

Saxena & co-workers

(custard apple)




(IRRI), 1984






Azadirachta indica

seeds

Remove husks of 2-3 handfuls of mature seeds. Winnow or put in water to float

rice pests

Saxena & co-workers

(neem)


away the husks. Grind seeds into fine particles. Soak ground seeds in 3-5 liters

diamond backmoth

(IRRI), 1984



water for at least 12 hours. Filter the solution, then use as spray.



1 Found effective, based or crude assay but further studies are needed to determine safety and residual action.

2 Names in italic are scientific names; names in parenthesis are common/local names.

3 Based on indigenous practice of farmers.

4 Mortality is 30% or more with crude extracts.

5 Researchers who conducted laboratory teas on particular plant.

References:

Alcantara, J. A. 1981. Insecticidal activity, screening and identification of two major crystalline fractions in Aegeratum conyzoides L. MS Thesis, University of the Philippines at Los Ba College, Laguna. 56 pp.

Calumpang, S. F. 1983. Insecticidal activity, screening and identification of the major crystalline fractions of Artemesia vulgaris (Compositae). MS Thesis, University of the Philippines at Los Ba College, Laguna. 109 pp.

CariF. A. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1982. Isolation and characterization of the insecticidal fraction from Tithonia diversifolia (A. Gray) leaves. Ann. Trop. Agric. 4:1-11.

Del Fierro, R. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1976. Preliminary study on the insecticidal activity of makabuhay, Tinospora rumphii Boer. Youth Res. Apprenticeship Action Prog. Rep. Society for the Advancement of Research. 9 pp. Unpublished.

Fuentebella, F. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1980. The insecticidal activity of fancy buttons (Lantana camara L.) flower extracts to several insect species. Youth Res. Apprenticeship Action Prog. Rep., Society for the Advancement of Research. 19 pp. Unpublished:

Javier, P. A. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1982. Isolation and bioassay of insecticidal principles from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) against three stored grain insects. In Progress In Grain Protection. Proc. 5th Ann. Workshop on Grain Post-Harvest Protection. SEA Coop. Post-Harvest Res. and Dev. pp. 49-59.

Maghanoy, O. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1975. Insecticidal activity of extracts from Derris philippinensis. Youth Res. Apprenticeship Action Rep. Society for the Advancement of Research. 6 pp.

Morallo-Rejesus B. and L. Eroles. 1978. Two insecticidal principles from marigold (Tagetes spp.) roots. Philipp. Ent. 4: (1 & 2) 87-98.

Morallo-Rejesus Bland D. Silva. 1979. Insecticidal activity of selected plants with emphasis on marigold (Tagetes spp.) and makabuhay (Tinospora rumphii). NRCP Ann. Rept. 19 April 1978-March 1979. Mimeo 25 pp. Unpublished Rep.

Morallo-Rejesus B. and A. Decena. 1982. The activity, isolation, purification and identification of the insecticidal principles from Tagetes. Phil. J. Crop Sci. 7:31-36.

Ponce de Leon, E. L. 1983. Further investigation of the insecticidal activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and red pepper (Capsicum anuum) on major storage pests of corn and legumes. MS Thesis, University of the Philippines at Los Ba College, Laguna. 44 pp.

Quebral, F. C. 1981. Assay on the fungicidal properties of some medicinal plants. Nat. Crop Prot. Center Ann. Rep. 1981. p. 21-25.

Saxena, R. C. 1984. Evaluation of neem seed derivatives against insect pests of rice. Paper read at the "Research Planning Workshop on Indigenous Plant Materials for Pest Control". International Rice Research Institute, Los Ba Laguna. August 6-10 1984.