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close this bookBio-Intensive Approach to Small-Scale Household Food Production (IIRR, 1993, 180 p.)
close this folderPest management
close this folderAlternative pest management
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCultural method of pest control
View the documentBiological pest control
View the documentEncouraging predators
View the documentBotanical pest control

(introduction...)

This is an approach that utilizes different techniques other than the use of chemical pesticides to control pests. It involves natural pest population-control methods, including cultural and biological controls the use of botanical pesticides as needed.

Cultural method of pest control

These methods are aimed either at reducing the sources of inoculum or at reducing the exposure of plants to infection. Its primary objective is the prevention of pest damage and not the destruction of an existing and damaging pest population.

1. Good soil preparation

This is the first important element in pest control strategy. A healthy soil means healthy plants which are relatively more resistant to pests. A soil rich in humus hosts a wide variety of beneficial microflora that trap nematodes and destroy or keep in dormancy disease organisms, thereby encouraging beneficial insects.


Good soil preparation

2. Use of indigenous varieties

Traditional varieties are hardier and relatively more resistant to pests. They can withstand harsh environmental conditions better than modem hybrids.


Use of indigenous varieties

3. Pest control through the use of mesh screen (nylon nets)

Younger plants are usually preferred by insects and they suffer significantly from such attacks when compared to older plants. Therefore, a single netting over the plants during the first 3045 days of their growth can reduce pest damage. Also, the net helps diffuse sunlight thereby improving the quality of some vegetables. Finally, the net breaks the impact of raindrops thus (i) reducing physical damage to the plant and (ii) reducing soil erosion from the beds.


Pest control through the use of mesh screen

4. Roguing or Pruning

Removal of diseased plants or plant parts prevents the spread of microorganisms to uninfected areas.


Roguing or Pruning

5. Intercropping with aromatic herbs

Several types of odorous plants can be grown together with the main crop to repel insects. The following are some examples:

Allium cepa (onion)

Hyptis suaveolens (bush-tea bush)

Allium odorum (leek)

Mentha cordifolia (mint)

Allium sativum (garlic)

Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil)

Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort, worm wood)

Ocimum sanctum (sacred basil)

Coleus amboinicus (oregano)

Tagetes spp. (marigold)

6. Encouraging insect predators

Pests can be controlled by their natural enemies. By growing a variety of flowering plants, specifically those belonging to Umbelliferae family, such as, fennel (Foeniculurn vulgare) and celery (Apium graveolens), insect predators will be attracted to stay in the garden. These beneficial insects feed on pests, keeping the pest population below economic injury level.


Encouraging insect predators

7. Multiple cropping

This provides genetic diversity to minimize pest increase. Variation in susceptibility among species or varieties to a particular disease is great. Given abundant hosts of a single species or variety, a pest could easily be spread from host to host. When the number of hosts declines, the pest incidence will also decrease for lack of necessary food for the organism.


Multiple cropping

8. Crop rotation

This is a practice of following a crop susceptible to a pest by a resistant crop. There is no build-up of the organism to a high level since the growth cycle of the organism has been broken.


Crop rotation

Biological pest control

Biological pest control is the suppression of pest populations by living organisms such as predators, parasites and pathogens. These agents are responsible for keeping pests under control most of the time.

Predators are usually other insects and spiders. Both, but particularly spiders, feed on a wide range of insects. Adults and immatures are often predatory.

Praying mantis, Dragonfly, Damselfly, Assassin bugs
Feed on all types of insects.


Praying mantis

Lacewings, White-banded clerid Robber files Feed on aphids and soft-bodied insects.


Lacewings

Ground beetles, Whirligig beetles, Rave beetles, Tiger beetles, Green carabid beetles
Feed on other insects.


Ground beetles

Ladybird beetles feed on scales and aphids only. They eat 40-50 insects per day. Their larva eat even more.


Ladybird beetles

Toads, snakes and spiders eat insects and other garden pests. Toads eat as many as 10,000 insects and other pests in three months, including cutworms, slugs, crickets, ants, caterpillars and squash bugs.


Toads, snakes and spiders

Birds

Some birds are omnivorous. Some examples from the temperate zone provide a good illustration of what birds eat. A house wren feeds 500 spiders and caterpillars to her young in one afternoon; a brown trasher consumes 6,000 insects a day; a chickadee eats 138,000 canker worm eggs in 25 days; and, a pair of flickers eats 5,000 ants as snack.


Birds

Parasitic insects are usually small flies or wasps which attack one or a few closely related pest species. They are parasitic in their larval stages but free-living as adults.

Tachinid flies, Braconid wasps

Complete their life cycle on insect pests. They usually attack the egg of the host pest or the caterpillar by laying an egg into its body. The wasp larva hatches inside the caterpillar body and feeds on it.


Tachinid flies, Braconid wasps

Trichogramma spp.

Attacks eggs of butterflies and moth. This wasp produces very few side effects on beneficial insects.


Trichogramma spp.

Epidinocarsis lopezi

Feeds and reproduces on mealybugs of cassava. It has the ability to establish itself in cassava fields.


Epidinocarsis lopezi

Encouraging predators

In nature, pests are usually controlled by the presence of insect predators and parasites which keep the populations of the harmful insects in control Most of the insects in nature are either beneficial or at least harmless. There are many ways to encourage insect predators in one's garden.

1. Create a Suitable Habitat for Insect Predators - Flowering shrubs and trees throughout the garden will attract many beneficial insects, including parasitic wasps which require pollen and nectar for their growth and maturity. Plants belonging to Umbelliferae family are particularly effective in attracting natural enemies of pests.

2. Provide Alternate Hosts for Pests - To ensure availability of food for the beneficial organisms, grow alternate host plants along fence lines and in between cultivated crops. The natural enemy populations on these alternate host plants will control pests attacking the cultivated crop.


Encouraging predators

3. Create Nesting Sites for Frogs, Reptiles and Birds - Logs of dead trees, irregularly shaped rocks with crevices and cavities and plenty of mulch can be a good nesting sites for snakes, lizards, frogs, rove beetles and carabid beetles, which feed on insects.

4. Increase Humidity by Providing Water Holes - Humidity is much needed for the survival of natural enemies. It serves as a source of drinking water for reptiles, birds and frogs. Many predatory insects live in, on and near water. Well-vegetated small dams, little water pools and swales scattered throughout the garden will create conditions for the build-up of natural enemies.

5. Practice Mixed Cultivation - Growing mixed crops and harvesting them in strips help maintain natural enemies and confuses pests. For fungal pathogens, the practice of mixed cropping is desirable as the root exudates of another crop can be toxic to the pathogen. Mixed cropping also encourages soil microbes which, in turn, act as barriers to the fungal pathogen.

6. Reduce Dust Build up in Crop Plants - Dust inhibits the functioning of natural enemies. Growing well-designed windbreaks and ground cover crops like centrosema and lablab bean will reduce dust. Use of overhead sprinklers will also help periodically in washing off the dust.

7. Avoid Spraying Chemical Pesticides - Chemical pesticides eliminate beneficial insects. If pest infestation reaches economic threshold levels and spraying cannot be avoided, use selective chemicals, such as:

a soil incorporated granular systemic insecticides for sucking insects;
b. stomach poisons; avoid broad-spectrum contact poisons; and,
c. insecticides with short-term residual action rather than persistent action.


Improved application method should be developed and minimum doses should be applied.

Botanical pest control

Fungicidal Plants¹

Plant Name²

Part(s) Used

Mode of preparation and application³

Target Pest(s)

Diseases Controlled

Allium sativum

cloves

Chop finely, soak in 2 teaspoons of oil for one day,

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Garlic)


then mix with half a liter of soapy water and filter.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye



Mix 1 part solution with 20 parts water, then spray.

Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge




Curvularia

leaf spot, leaf blight




Diplodia

fruit and stem rot




Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,




Helminthosporium

wilt, curly top




Pestalotia

leaf blight





leaf spot

Cassia alata

leaves

Extract juice and spray at a rate of 1 cup juice/liter water.

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Acapulco)



Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye




Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge




Diplodia

fruit and stem rot




Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,




Helminthosporium

wilt, curly top




Pestalotia

leaf blight leaf spot

Amaranthus gracilis

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Amaranth)


liters of water, and spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye




Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge




Curvularia

leaf spot, leaf blight




Helminthosporium

leaf blight




Pestalotia

leaf spot

Leucaena leucocephala leaves

Pound, soak in small amount of water, and use

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot


(Ipil-ipil)


infusion as spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye




Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge




Curvularia

leaf spot, leaf blight




Helminthosporium

leaf blight




Pestalotia

leaf spot

Allium cepa

bulb

Chop finely, soak in two teaspoons of oil for 1 day,

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Red onion)


then mix with half a liter of soapy water and filter.

Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge



Mix 1 part solution with 20 parts water, then spray.

Curvularia

leaf spot, leaf blight




Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,




Helminthosporium

wilt, curly top




Pestalotia

leaf blight





leaf spot

Moringa oleifera

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Drumstick/Horseradish)

liters of water, and use as spray.

Colletotrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge





Diplodia

fruit and stem rot




Pestalotia

leaf spot

Impatiens balsamina

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Kamantigi)


liters of water, and use as spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye




Helminthosporium

leaf blight

Centella asiatica leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,


(Takip-kuhol)


liters of water, and use as spray.

Helminthosporium

wilt, curly top





leaf blight

Jatropha multifida

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Diplodia

fruit and stem rot

(Mana)


liters of water, and use as spray.

Fusarium

damping-off, stem and root rot, early blight,





wilt, curly top

Gendarussa vulgaris

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Bunlao)


liters of water, and use as spray.

Colletorrichum

leaf spot, anthracnose, fruit rot, smudge






Carica papaya

leaves

Pound, soak in water, and use infusion as spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Papaya)



Diplodia

fruit and stem rot

Mimosa pudica

whole plant Pound, soak in water and use infusion as spray.

Diplodia

fruit and stem rot


Sensitive plant



Pestalotia

leaf spot

Artemisia vulgaris

leaves

Extract juice and use as spray at the rate of 2-5

Altenaria

fruit rot, early blight, purple blotch, leaf spot

(Damong Maria)


tablespoons juice/liter of water.



Zingiber officinale

rhizome

Extract juice and use as spray.

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Ginger)





Gliricidia septum

leaves

Extract juice of l kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Kakawate)


liters of water, and use as spray.



Coleus scutellarioides

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Mayana)


liters of water, and use as spray.



Vitex negundo

leaves

Extract juice of 1 kg leaves, then mix juice with 3

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Lagundi)


liters of water, and use as spray.



Blumea balsamifera

leaves

Extract juice and spray at a proportion of 1 part juice

Cercospora

leaf mold, leaf spot, early blight, frog-eye

(Sambong)


and 1 part water



1 Plant species showing; activity against different fungal pathogens at two days incubation after seeding, based on zone of inhibition. (Data from Quebral, 1981)





2 Plant names in italics are scientific names; those in parenthesis are common/local names.





3 Based on indigenous practice of farmers.





Insecticidal, Plants

Name of Plant²

Part(s)

Mode of Preparation and Application³

Pest(s)4

Source 5


Used









Aegeratum conizoides

leaves


diamond backmoth Alcantara, 1981


(goat weed)



cotton stainer







Artemisia vulgaris

leaves

Pound, extract juice and spray at a rate of 24

corn borer

Calumpang, 1983

(damong maria)


tablespoons/16 liters water








Lantana camara flowers

Pound and spread around stored grains

corn weevil

Fuentebella & Morallo


(lantana)




Rejesus, 1980






Derris philippinensis

roots

Extract juice and spray at a rate of 5 cups juice/5 gallons of water; or Powder,

diamond backmoth

Maghanoy & Morallo

(tubli)


mix with detergent and spray at a rate of 120 grams powder + 250-300 grams


Rejesus, 1975



detergent/4 gallons of water








Tithonia diversifolia

leaves

Pound, extract juice and use as spray at a rate of 1-2 kg fruits/liter of water

cotton stainer

Cariamp; Morallo

(wild sunflower)



black army worm

Rejesus, 1982




diamond backmoth


Tagetes erecta

roots

Extract juice and spray at a rate of 24 tablespoons juice/liter of water

rice green leafhopper

Morallo-Rejesus &

(marigold)



brown planthopper

Eroles, 1978




diamond backmoth

Morallo-Rejesus &




black bean aphid

Decena, 1982






Tagetes patula

roots

Pound, extract juice of 1 kg roots and mix with 1 liter water, then spray the

green aphid

Morallo-Rejesus &

(French marigold)


solution directly into the soil

less grain borer

Silva, 1979






Tinospora rumphii

vines

Extract juice and spray at a rate of 15-20 tablespoons juice/5 gallons water

diamond backmoth

del Fierro & Morallo

(makabuhay)



rice green leafhopper

Rejesus, 1976





Morallo-Rejesus &





Silva, 1979






Piper nigrum

fruits

Pulverize seeds, mix with water and spray; powder and spread around stored

cotton stainer

stainer & Morallo

(black pepper)


grains

diamond backmoth

Rejesus, 1982




common cutworms

Ponce de Leon, 1983




corn weevil







Capsicum frutescens

fruits

Pound, extract juice and spray at a rate of 2-3 cups fruit/liter of water

rice moth

Ponce de Leon, 1983

(hot pepper)










Annona squamosa

seeds

Powder and disperse in water, then strain and use as spray

rice pests

Saxena & co-workers

(custard apple)




(IRRI), 1984






Azadirachta indica

seeds

Remove husks of 2-3 handfuls of mature seeds. Winnow or put in water to float

rice pests

Saxena & co-workers

(neem)


away the husks. Grind seeds into fine particles. Soak ground seeds in 3-5 liters

diamond backmoth

(IRRI), 1984



water for at least 12 hours. Filter the solution, then use as spray.



1 Found effective, based or crude assay but further studies are needed to determine safety and residual action.

2 Names in italic are scientific names; names in parenthesis are common/local names.

3 Based on indigenous practice of farmers.

4 Mortality is 30% or more with crude extracts.

5 Researchers who conducted laboratory teas on particular plant.

References:

Alcantara, J. A. 1981. Insecticidal activity, screening and identification of two major crystalline fractions in Aegeratum conyzoides L. MS Thesis, University of the Philippines at Los Ba College, Laguna. 56 pp.

Calumpang, S. F. 1983. Insecticidal activity, screening and identification of the major crystalline fractions of Artemesia vulgaris (Compositae). MS Thesis, University of the Philippines at Los Ba College, Laguna. 109 pp.

CariF. A. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1982. Isolation and characterization of the insecticidal fraction from Tithonia diversifolia (A. Gray) leaves. Ann. Trop. Agric. 4:1-11.

Del Fierro, R. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1976. Preliminary study on the insecticidal activity of makabuhay, Tinospora rumphii Boer. Youth Res. Apprenticeship Action Prog. Rep. Society for the Advancement of Research. 9 pp. Unpublished.

Fuentebella, F. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1980. The insecticidal activity of fancy buttons (Lantana camara L.) flower extracts to several insect species. Youth Res. Apprenticeship Action Prog. Rep., Society for the Advancement of Research. 19 pp. Unpublished:

Javier, P. A. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1982. Isolation and bioassay of insecticidal principles from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) against three stored grain insects. In Progress In Grain Protection. Proc. 5th Ann. Workshop on Grain Post-Harvest Protection. SEA Coop. Post-Harvest Res. and Dev. pp. 49-59.

Maghanoy, O. and B. Morallo-Rejesus. 1975. Insecticidal activity of extracts from Derris philippinensis. Youth Res. Apprenticeship Action Rep. Society for the Advancement of Research. 6 pp.

Morallo-Rejesus B. and L. Eroles. 1978. Two insecticidal principles from marigold (Tagetes spp.) roots. Philipp. Ent. 4: (1 & 2) 87-98.

Morallo-Rejesus Bland D. Silva. 1979. Insecticidal activity of selected plants with emphasis on marigold (Tagetes spp.) and makabuhay (Tinospora rumphii). NRCP Ann. Rept. 19 April 1978-March 1979. Mimeo 25 pp. Unpublished Rep.

Morallo-Rejesus B. and A. Decena. 1982. The activity, isolation, purification and identification of the insecticidal principles from Tagetes. Phil. J. Crop Sci. 7:31-36.

Ponce de Leon, E. L. 1983. Further investigation of the insecticidal activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and red pepper (Capsicum anuum) on major storage pests of corn and legumes. MS Thesis, University of the Philippines at Los Ba College, Laguna. 44 pp.

Quebral, F. C. 1981. Assay on the fungicidal properties of some medicinal plants. Nat. Crop Prot. Center Ann. Rep. 1981. p. 21-25.

Saxena, R. C. 1984. Evaluation of neem seed derivatives against insect pests of rice. Paper read at the "Research Planning Workshop on Indigenous Plant Materials for Pest Control". International Rice Research Institute, Los Ba Laguna. August 6-10 1984.