|A 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment: The Vision, Challenge, and Recommended Action (IFPRI, 1995, 56 p.)|
As part of the 2020 Vision initiative, IFPRI co-sponsored workshops in three developing regions of the world. Policymakers, researchers, and technical experts in each region developed regional strategies to realize the 2020 Vision. The workshop on Latin America, co-sponsored by the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the Centro Internacional de Agricultural Tropical (CIAT), was held in Cali, Colombia, March 20-22, 1995. The Institute for Integrated Development Studies of Nepal co-sponsored the workshop on South Asia, which took place in Kathmandu, Nepal, March 26-29, 1995. The workshop on Sub-Saharan Africa was held in Saly Portudal, Senegal, December 14-17, 1994, and co-sponsored by the Office of the Coordinator-General of the Conference of Ministers of Agriculture of West and Central Africa.
Key elements of the strategies devised for each region are presented here. Further details may be obtained from the full texts of the 2020 regional strategies.
· Develop highly productive, sustainable food and agricultural systems. Develop technologies for all viable producers, especially small farmers, that increase productivity and protect the natural resource base. Develop system components beyond production to include storage, processing, and distribution.
· Facilitate responsible exploitation and protection of natural resources. Develop a consensus about the need to protect natural resources among producers and the general public; improve pesticide, water, and soil management; evaluate the environmental impact of policies and programs; and incorporate the value of natural resources in national accounts.
· Strengthen market forces. Ensure appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks to promote and, where necessary, regulate competition in the private sector; provide stable and transparent macroeconomic policies; and ensure complementarity between macroeconomic and sectoral policies.
· Support the needs of the private sector. Provide and maintain public goods, such as communications and transportation infrastructure and agricultural research and extension, in collaboration with the private sector where appropriate.
· Move decisionmaking and financial control from the central to local levels. Create new institutional frameworks that promote participatory democracy and allow local communities to identify their needs and design and administer programs congruent with locally available financial and human resources.
· Increase public-sector investment in human resources and basic infrastructure. Improve the quality of and access to education, primary health care, clean water, and sanitation, especially in rural areas and for women.
· Increase investment in the agriculture sector through research and technology development and transfer, irrigation expansion, and development of human resources and rural infrastructure.
· Enhance access to improved agricultural technologies by strengthening linkages between research, extension, and farmers through a participatory approach; increasing information sharing and communication; and developing regional networks.
· Develop productive, sustainable, environmentally friendly technologies by giving high priority to formulation of a systems approach to agricultural development.
· Strengthen efforts to protect the environment by gradually discontinuing policies that lead to environmental degradation and promoting approaches that increase agricultural productivity and sustainability.
· Improve commercialization of agriculture through better production and marketing by increasing the role of the private sector, developing rural infrastructure, and improving market intelligence.
· Increase investment in human resources by introducing and strengthening programs that target poor individuals and households, emphasizing maternal and child health and nutrition programs, improving access to clean water and sanitation, providing safety nets for the poor, and investing in education.
· Improve trade linkages with the global economy and with the Asia-Pacific region, liberalize trade in feedgrains, and continue to liberalize trade and exchange rates.
· Improve government policies and the quality of governance at national and local levels, implement agrarian reforms, adopt macroeconomic policies neutral if not favorable to agriculture, and ensure local participation in decisionmaking.
· Proactively pursue national and international competitiveness. At the national level, develop lower-cost local products and marketing systems for them, improve product quality, and create innovative products through agroprocessing; at the regional level, implement existing regional integration agreements, harmonize national taxation policies, support policies for more efficient cross-border trade, and remove infrastructure and institutional barriers to flow of commodities across borders; and, at the global level, develop collective strategies for global trade negotiations to ensure fair access to markets.
· Reduce malnutrition and alleviate poverty through broad-based economic growth, taking direct measures in the near term such as targeted subsidies for vulnerable groups, targeted public works and other employment programs, and child nutrition programs for at-risk groups.
To accomplish these goals on a sustainable basis will require three actions:
· Increasing the productivity of agricultural production resources to achieve a sustained 4 percent rate of agricultural growth through in-depth scientific research, research on better practices for farm conditions, improved incentives, adequate attention to fertilizer supply, and improved transport;
· Boosting national public investment in agriculture to 30 percent of national budget outlay from the historical average of 7 percent with effective and increased domestic resource mobilization; and
· Improving the quality, stability, probity, and consistency of agricultural policy, encouraging effective rural participation in political systems and developing a locally based process of analytical input into policymaking.