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close this bookChiping - Course: Technique for Manual Working of Materials. Trainees' Handbook of Lessons
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Purpose of chipping
View the document2. Tools and auxiliary tools for chipping
View the document3. Protective means
View the document4. Operation and techniques of chipping
View the document5. Labour safety recommendations

2. Tools and auxiliary tools for chipping

Main tools are chisels of various kinds. They are made of unalloyed tool steel carbon content (0.9 %). The cutting part is hammered, hardened, ground and tempered (HRC 48). The head of the chisel is unhardened, chamfered towards the upper end and rounded.

Chisels are chosen according to the respective task as well as hardness of material of the workpiece:

- Flat chisel

Most common chisel for separating and chipping with straight, broad cutting edge.



Figure 2 - Flat chisel
- Round chisel

Special chisel for chiselling out big holes or separating curved forms. This chisel has an arched cutting edge.



Figure 3 - Round chisel
- Cross-cut chisel

Chisel for chiselling out horizontal grooves or for separating webs in boring lines. The cutting edge is across the width of the chisel, the side surfaces are hollow-ground.



Figure 4 - Cross-cut chisel
- Shear tool

Chisel for shearing sheet metal. It has a straight, broad cutting edge which is at level with one flank and the shank of the chisel.



Figure 5 - Shear tool
- Grooving chisel

Chisel for chiselling out grooves in special workpieces (bearing shells). The cutting edge of the chisel is across the shank, the arched back corresponds to the arched forms.



Figure 6 - Grooving chisel
- Cut-out tool

Chisel for cutting out webs with boring lines and drilled deep-holes.

The two cutting edges are hollow-ground; the flanks are relief-ground in order to avoid jamming.



Figure 7 - Cut-out tool
- Hollow punch

Chisel with circular cutting edge for chiselling out holes in thin or soft materials


Figure 8 - Hollow punch

The following recommended values apply to the selection of chisels according to the hardness of material:

Constitution of the material

Cutting-wedge angle

Soft (aluminium)

30° - 50°

medium hard (steel)

60°

hard (tool steel)

60° - 70°


Figure 9 - Cutting-wedge angle at the chisel

When is the technique of chipping applied?
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What material are chisels made of?
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What aspects have to be considered in choosing chisels?
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When do you use a flat chisel?
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When do you use a cross-cut chisel?
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What cutting-wedge angle shall the cutting edges have for working medium hard steel?
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- Hammer

Mostly, hand hammers are used (weight: 400 g); as a general rule:

The hammer should be twice as heavy as the chisel.


Figure 10 - Hand hammer
- Supports

For absorbing the beating effect, these should be unhardened: steel plates, steel blocks.


Figure 11 - Anvil with steel support

If the anvil is used, an unhardened intermediate plate is required; when working with the hollow punch, use a wooden support.

Marking-out tables and surface plates must not be used - the chisel edge causes damage that destroys the even surfaces of the plates.


Figure 12 - Collet vice

- Vice

If possible, use a collet vice for clamping smaller parts and work against a rigid counter-support.

Always beat against the fixed jaw of the vice in order to go easy on the screw.