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close this bookFiling - Course: Technique for Manual Working of Materials. Trainees' Handbook of Lessons
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Purpose of filing
View the document2. Filing tools
View the document3. Auxiliary means for filing
View the document4. Operation of filing
View the document5. Standing position and guiding of the file
View the document6. Handling of the files
View the document7. Labour safety recommendations

6. Handling of the files

Big files:

One hand grips the file handle while the palm of the other hand (guiding hand) lies on the end of the file blade and holds and guides the file in the horizontal plane.


Figure 28 Handling of big files

Middle-size files:

One hand grips the file handle while thumb and fingers of the other hand (guiding hand) grip the end of the file blade guiding the file.


Figure 29 Handling of middle-size files

Small files:

One hand grips the file handle while the fingers of the other hand press onto the file blade so as to avoid deflection of the file blade
(Filing without guiding hand is also possible)


Figure 30 Handling of small files

6.1. Filing of straight faces

There are three types of filing strokes

Oblique stroke:

Suitable for removing big quantities of chips with rough surface


Figure 31 Oblique stroke filing

Crossing stroke:

The traces left by changing the working direction are noticeable on the surface as peaks and valleys!


Figure 32 Cross-stroke filing

Longitudinal stroke:

Working traces in parallel with the longest edge of the work - light guidance of the file for smooth finish.


Figure 33 Longitudinal stroke filing

Testing of faces for flatness and angularity is preferably done by bevelled steel straightedge and bevelled edge square!

6.2. Filing of curved faces

Small outer radii are filed longitudinally in the direction of the radius.

The working movement is featured by a rocking feed movement opposite to the radius


Figure 34 Filing of small outer radii

Filing on big outer radii is at right angles to the radius starting at one side and working to the other side with slightly oblique stroke.


Figure 35 Filing of big outer radii

Filing on inside radii of any size is at right angles to the radius. The radius of the file (round file, half round file) must be smaller than the radius of the work.


Figure 36 Filing of big inside radii

Testing of the radii for accuracy to shape is by radius gauges for outer and inner radii.

6.3. Filing of recesses and openings

The file is carefully selected depending on the size and shape of the recesses or openings It must be smaller than the recess or opening to be filed.

Testing for accuracy to size is by measuring instruments, for accuracy to shape by adequate counterparts.


Figure 37 Filing of an opening

6.4. Filing of chamfers

On big workpieces filing of chamfers at an angle of 45 degrees is performed with vertically inclined file. Small workpieces may be clamped in an angle vice and are filed horizontally.


Figure 38 Filing of a chamfer on big workpieces


Figure 39 Filing of a chamfer on small workpieces by means of an angle vice

On round stock (bolts) filing of chamfers is performed with the file laterally inclined by 45 degrees, filing step by step around the round stock with the file whipped outwards


Figure 40 Filing of a chamfer on round stock

Testing of the chamfer is by Judgement by the eye, particularly with respect to evenness and surface finish.

Which kinds of stroke are to be subsequently used when filing straight faces?
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Why can evenness with good surface finish be achieved only by crossing-stroke filing?
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What is typical of the working movement when filing small outside radii?
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Which requirements are to be met when filing inside radii?
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What makes the difference between filing of big and small parts?
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