|Bending - Course: Technique of Working Sheet Metals, Pipes and Sections. Trainees' Handbook of Lessons|
This material is intended for vocational training in jobs where basic skills and abilities in the processing of sheet metals, pipes and sections, are required.
The handbook describes the execution of various bending techniques with tools, appliances and machines. The necessary calculations are explained with the help of examples.
Hints on Labour Safety
In general, the same labour safety rules apply to the bending techniques as to the manual techniques of hammering and straightening.
Especially the following focal points have to be attended to:
- Only use proper hammers - hammer shaft must be tightly wedged with the hammer head.
- Select the correct striking base with regard to the form of bending - a hard and inflexible surface is required.
- Workpieces to be clamped have to be tightly fixed in the clamping fixture so that they are not torn away by the striking impact
- Always strike against the fixed vise jaw so that the vise screw will not be damaged.
- Mind your hands and head when working on presses.
- Work with welding torches must not be performed until the instructor has given the necessary instructions.
- Always observe fire protection - place ready water for fire fighting, do not work in close vicinity to inflammable materials.
- Only bend sheet metals and sections of over 8 to 10 mm thickness and pipes of more than ½" in a heated state.
- Only use dry sand as filler for hot bending of pipes to avoid steam formation.