Measuring and Testing - Course: Technique for Manual Working of Materials. Trainees' Handbook of Lessons
 (introduction...) 1. Purpose of Measuring and Testing 2. Measuring Tools 3. Testing Tools 4. Recommendations for Handling Measuring and Testing Tools

### 3. Testing Tools

Testing tools (gauges) are sensitive instruments of surface hardened steel without any graduation. The measure is represented by their shape or size or setting.

Some testing tools have their type of measure engraved on them.

3.1. Size gauges

Size gauges are used to determine sizes or to check whether any dimensions of parts are within admissible limits.

Yes - the size is within the admissible range.
No - the size is smaller than required.
No - the size is bigger than required.

If the answer is "no", it is to be decided whether (reworking) corrections of the part are possible.

Caliper:

Instrument with movable legs for outside and inside testing which are set to the size of the workpiece or setting of which is done by means of a measuring instrument before use.

Figure 11 Outside calipering

Figure 12 Inside calipering

Thickness gauge:

Instrument which consists of several leaves of different thicknesses (0.05 to 0.1 mm increments) and is used to determine the size of narrow clearances by inserting a leaf into the clearance.

Figure 13 Clearance testing by means of a thickness gauge

Drill and wire gauges:

Instruments with holes on a steel disk in 0.1 mm increments to quickly determine the diameter of drills or wires.

Figure 14 Testing of diameters by means of the drill and wire gauge

Block gauges:

Square, standardized blocks, each representing a very precise measure of length (from 0.1 mm) .They are arranged in sets in boxes and are used for differential or comparative measurements.

Figure 15 Testing by means of block gauges

Limit gauges:

Instruments representing the maximum and minimum limits of very small, standardized tolerance ranges (such as to the ISA system of tolerances and fits):

- Cylindrical limit plug gauge - for fitting inside diameters

Figure 16 Cylindrical limit plug gauge

1 "go" end (minimum size), 2 handle with designation of fit, 3 marking (red) of "not go" end, 4 "not go" end (maximum size)

- Limit screw plug gauge - for fitting female threads.

Figure 17 Limit screw plug gauge

Testing method:

The "go" end (minimum diameter) must easily go into the bore, the "not go" end (maximum diameter, marked with red colour) must not go into the bore.

- Limit snap gauge - for fitting outside diameters

Figure 18 Limit snap gauge

1 "go" end (maximum size), 2 gauge body with designation of fit, 3 marking (red) of "not go" end, 4 "not go" end (minimum size)

Testing method:

The "go" end (maximum diameter) must easily go over the work-piece, the "not go" end (minimum diameter, marked with red colour) must not slide over the workpiece,

Testing method:

When the ring can be screwed onto the thread, the thread is fitting!

(This does, however, not say whether the thread is possibly skew or dented).

What is the difference between measuring and testing tools?

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What are the special features of limit gauges compared to simple size gauges?

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What testing method is typical of the use of cylindrical limit plug gauges?

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What are the results of testing by means of limit screw plug gauges and ring thread gauges?

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3.2. Form gauges

Form gauges are used to determine whether the requirements as to flatness, squareness, roundness or other forms are met.

The light-gap testing method is applied:

Place the gauge against the workpiece and hold it against the light! The light gap between the gauge and workpiece must be evenly narrow!

(Form errors from 0.003 mm can be detected)

Figure 20 Light-gap testing

Levelling straightedge:

Instrument designed as steel straightedge (with straight reference faces) or as bevelled steel straightedge (with one knife edge) for flatness tests on finished surfaces.

Figure 21 Levelling straightedges

Try square:

Instrument designed as millwrights' steel square (with straight reference faces), back square (with straight reference faces and one reference face designed as stock support) or bevelled edge square (with one knife edge) for flatness tests of faces and angularity tests (mostly 90° degrees) of two faces or edges to each other.

Figure 22 Try squares

Angle gauges:

Instruments for specific angles (60, 120, 55. 118 degrees).

Figure 23 Angle gauges