| Agricultural development workers training manual: Volume IV Livestock |
1. You have just completed the first year in Luebo. You have a rabbit project Just starting with 3 New Zealand does and 1 New Zealand buck. The rainy season has returned and the grazing area of grasses is beginning to grow. You believe that you have no major disease problems in the area and you do have good wire cages to use. It is your plan to make the project labor intensive and utilize the labor of the local school kids. You have arranged to purchase on credit 2,000 lbs. of corn and 400 lbs. of winged beans from a local cooperative. The corn costs 10¢ per lb. and the winged beans 20¢ per lb. You also have access to vitamin and mineral supplement and an adequate supply of limestone.
A. Based on this information prepare a feed ration for your rabbits.
B. What is the cost of the ration per pound?
C. What management problems (only two) do you foresee based on the information?
D. What feed/grain ration can you expect?
E. How many fryers will you be able to market with this volume of feed? State your reasoning? How many months will it take to produce your market number of fryers?
F. What price per pound must your rabbits sell for to realize a reasonable profit?
In the village of Tulume lives Bukasa, a farmer with whom you have established a successful rabbit project. The combination of your expertise and his labor has created an operation with a high investment feed ration, good wire floor cages, no disease problems, and sound management practices. Having accomplished all of this in 12 months, you take an overdue vacation and visit Dar Es Salaam. Upon your return you discover that in your absence Bukasa had a severe case of the flu and was unable to attend to the animals for 2 weeks. During this time two week old rabbits received practically no care, became highly stressed, a severe diarrhea outbreak occurred which you diagnose as coccidiosis. In your presence the animals have recovered, but now Bukasa wants to sell all of the animals and replace them with new stock. Do you agree with his decision to sell? Yes/No, if no, give a better option. If yes, give supporting arguments.
After a year of working in your village you have become good friends with the farmer Boon Santawong. During several drinking sessions with Boon you have discovered that he raises a few pigs at his home. He asks you how he can get more money for his pigs. Given the following information what would you tell him?
He has two sows and one boar of native exotic cross.
The animals are fed table scraps. During the day they are allowed to forage in a forested area and get water from several mudholes nearby.
Brucellosis is endemic in the region but there has been no recent outbreak. Roundworms, lice, and mites are common. Hog Cholera can be a problem in the hot season.
He raises three crops: Rice for family use as well as for sale, with bran going for 25¢/kilo. Winged beans sell for 50¢/kilo. Cassava is there for the taking as he is too far from any mayor buyer.
As he sells parks in a sub-district market he must slaughter the animals before sale and loses 30% of the carcass weight. Porks sells for $2/kilo.
It costs him $3 to travel to and from the market with the carcass.
Boon has about $100 per year invest in the pigs.
Bamboo costs $2/7 meter pole (it can be split infinitely according to need).
Lumber costs 50¢/foot (2 by 4).
Sheet metal $5/3 by 6 foot piece.
Straw and coconut are available.
Atgard costs $2/dose.
Malathion costs $5/liter.
Cholera vaccine costs $3/dose.
1. A subsistence farmer raises some corn, casaava, and potatoes. He has 5 does, 5 bucks, and 3 kids (as in baby goats !). He gets meat from his goats. He lets them graze freely all day on poor pasture during the dry season. In the rainy season, this pasture becomes moderate (6%CP). (The rainy season lasts about 3 months). At night, the farmer brings the goats indoors for protection. The older goats do not appear to be gaining weight. The younger goats are thin, are coughing, and have rough haircoats. The farmer tells you that he's noticed that there have been fewer kids this past season than normal. He wants to know how to better his situation.
A. What level of production is he at? Why?
B. What are the problems you see in the above situation? Use situation, genetics, diseases, parasites, housing, and management as your guidelines.
C. What level do you think the farmer can achieve? Why?
D. What recommendations would you make to him? Justify each one.
A. Define and describe the purpose of the following organs of the chicken. Crops, Gizzard, Small and Large Intestine. Although you do not have the capability to diagnose, how can a post mortem on a chicken be used as a credibility technique in the field?
Name a breed of chickens and/or ducks that would be ideal for each of the following functions. A. Egg production; B. Meat production; C. Natural incubation. Explain why these breeds are ideal for these functions.
Discuss the advantaged and disadvantages in raising guinea fowl over chickens. How could you solve some of the problems in raising them.
1. List ant use the five components of animal raising; ant explain what advantages does a native breed have over an exotic breed in a low management situation. Why would it be inappropriate to have a native breed in a high or moderate management situation?
2. Provide a brief description of a rabbit cage (materials, design, etc.) for a survival production project, one for a moderate production project, and one geared for Zaire.
3. List the five nutrient needs of animals ant explain their purpose. You may use the "construction of the animal" analogy, if you wish.
4. What is meant by "high quality protein-? Give an example of such a protein. Is high quality protein required by goats? Why?
5. What is meant by complimentary proteins? Give an example of two ingredients and their amino acids which complement each other.
6. Explain why some feeds are mixes, chopped, ground, cracked, or cooked before being given to animals.
7. Give the general nutrient characteristics of roughages ant concentrates.