| Application of biomass-energy technologies |
Over the last 20 years there have been numerous proclamations of failure and success of biomass schemes and projects. Much of the criticism has been warranted and has certainly helped focus attention on such projects' shortcomings and often uncritical acceptance. The designation "successful" to a project must be seen as relative to past failures and it does not imply that all components of a project are acceptable for any specific programme. Ideally, a successful biomass programme should show sustainability, replicability and flexibility, multiple benefits, and should also be economic when all costs and benefits, particularly the externalities, are considered.
The socio-economic and technological implications of the use of biomass technologies have been considered in this publication through several case studies. In most cases, the relevant authors have had long-term direct experience of evaluation at the local, national and international levels. Only such case studies have been selected for this publication where economic data are available in disaggregated form or the projects had been operating for a reasonable period, extending over at least several years. Particular attention has been paid to the modern attributes of biomass and to the opportunities for upgrading biomass production and use, highlighting the under-utilized biomass energy potential.