| Application of biomass-energy technologies |
|I. Woodfuel production technologies|
Mozambique has a land area of 799,380 km² and is located in Southern Africa The population of Mozambique in 1990 was estimated to be around 15.7 million with an average annual growth rate of 2.6 per cent (Pereira, 1990).
Woodfuel accounts for more than 80 per cent of the total energy consumed in Mozambique and for about 95 per cent of the total energy used for domestic purposes.
Due to low population density, there is enough woodfuel resources to meet local demand from existing natural forests and woodlands. The annual demand of woodfuel is estimated at 16 million m³ while the annual potential supply is above 35 million m³. However, most of the forests are not accessible to the people due to civil war, which is, consequently, creating localized woodfuel scarcities, particularly around the cities. To enhance the supply of woodfuel to the majority of the low-income people, the Government has established large-scale urban woodfuel plantations in Maputo, Beira and Nampula.
1. Establishment of large-scale urban woodfuel plantations
Between the financial years 1978/79 and 1987/88 a total of 7892 ha of woodfuel plantations were established in Maputo (3696 ha), Beira (3231 ha) and Nampula (965 ha). The total costs of establishing the plantations were 1007 million meticais as the local component provided by the Government of Mozambique and $US4974 million, provided by NORAD as a grant.
The main objective of the plantations was to produce woodfuel and poles. The annual total planting target for the three towns were 1500 ha Hence, between the periods 1978/79 and 1987/88 a total of 15,000 ha should have been planted, but, in fact, only 7892 ha were planted due to shortage of a skilled and experienced workforce.
2. Individual tree-planting
In 1982, the Government, with the support of the mass media, launched a campaign of planting at least I million trees annually by individuals, for woodfuel, shade and fruits. In 1986, a campaign was launched in Maputo with its suburbs to plant ornamental trees around houses and along streets.
In 1985, the pert-urban dwellers of the main towns of Mozambique were encouraged to plant trees on agroforestry principles to intensify their subsistence farming. Nurseries were established to provide seedlings for individual tree-planting. In addition, farmers are planting trees so as to increase the value of their land.
3. NGOs' support in individual tree-planting
The Canadian University Service Overseas (CUSO) is assisting farmers in individual treeplanting in Chokwe. They are conducting extension services, helping in raising multipurpose tree species and encouraging farmers to conserve indigenous trees on farmland. Their budget for the period 1987 to 1992 was estimated to be $US1.9 million. Treeplanting is also taking place in Umbeluzi with NGO support.