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close this book Small Scale Production of Lime for Building
View the document Introduction
close this folder 1. General Information
View the document 1.1 Geological description of limestone
View the document 1.2 Chemical composition of limestone
View the document 1.3 Physical characteristics of limestone
View the document 1.4 Classification of limestone
View the document 1.5 Chemical reactions in the production of lime
View the document 1.6 Common uses of lime in developing countries
close this folder 2. Project Investigation and Implementation
View the document 2.1 Schematic representation
View the document 2.2 Socio-economic study
View the document 2.3 Mineral resource investigations
View the document 2.4 Site surveys
View the document 2.5 Market study
View the document 2.6 Location of production site and decision on technological level
View the document 2.7 Production plan
View the document 2.8 Financing
View the document 2.9 Marketing plan
View the document 2.10 Example economic feasibility calculation
View the document 2.11 Project implementation programme and resource plans
View the document 2.12 Project implementation
close this folder 3. Technical and Production Information
View the document 3.1 Quarrying and kiln feed preparation
View the document 3.2 Fuels
View the document 3.3 Limeburning
View the document 3.4 Hydration
close this folder 4. Testing and Quality Control
View the document 4.1 Geological investigation (the geological surveying)
View the document 4.2 Laboratory testing
View the document 4.3 Field testing
View the document 4.4 Quality control
View the document 4.5 Tests
close this folder 5. Technical Account of a 3 Tonne/Day Limeburning Operation in Moshaneng, Botswana
View the document 5.1 Background
View the document 5.2 Production process
View the document 5.3 Trials
View the document 5.4 Hydration
View the document 5.5 Conclusions and recommendations
close this folder Appendix
View the document Useful addresses
View the document References

1.1 Geological description of limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of calcium and magnesium carbonate. It is formed by the deposition either of the skeletons of small creatures and/or plants (organic limestones), or by chemical precipitation, or by deposition of fragments of limestone rock, on the beds of seas and lakes. Limestones are contaminated to a greater or lesser extent by the deposition of sand" or clay which are the source of the impurities found in them. Usually there is a difference in quality in a deposit from one layer to the next. The purest carbonates and the most suitable from the production point of view tend to be the thick bedded type. Carbonate deposits may be found in horizontal layers as deposited, or at an angle from the horizontal due to earth movements. They will vary in density, hardness and chemical purity.