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close this book Pig waste management and recycling: The Singapore experience
View the document Foreword
View the document Preface
View the document Acknowledgments
Open this folder and view contents 1. A summary of the Singapore experience
Open this folder and view contents 2. Pig production
Open this folder and view contents 3. Pig house ventilation in the tropics
Open this folder and view contents 4. Pig housing in the tropics
Open this folder and view contents 5. Environmental impact of pig wastes
Open this folder and view contents 6. Olfaction and malodours in pig farming areas
Open this folder and view contents 7. Algae biomass recovery and utilization
Open this folder and view contents 8. Recovery of fungal and: bacterial biomass
Open this folder and view contents 9. Design and construction of the ponggol pigwaste plant
Open this folder and view contents 10. Units of treatment and unit operations
View the document Acronyms and abbreviations
View the document Sources

Sources

This bibliography lists, by chapter, all of the source material that was used in the preparation of this book. Many of the sources were used in more than one chapter and, therefore, appear more than once in this list. All original sources are maintained at the Library of the Pig and Poultry Research and Training Institute, Sembawang Field Experiment Station, Primary Production Department, 17 Km Sembawang Road, Singapore 2776, Republic of Singapore.

Chapter 1

ARC/NUS (Applied Research Corporation, National University of Singapore). 1989. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Waste Management and Recycling in Pig Farms, Singapore, 9-10 October 1989. National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore. 200 pp.

Barcelon, E.G. 1987. Performance of a 15 m³ anaerobic digester using raw dilute wastes. 27 pp.

Choo, P.Y., Taiganides, E.P., ed. 1988. Pig farming in Malaysia: 1988 workshop proceedings. Animal Waste Management and Pollution Control, Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. UNDP/FAO-MAL184/001, 200 pp.

Chou, X. C. 1978. Animal production in Argentina and USA. 7 pp.

Dodd, J.C. 1978. Preliminary conceptual plan for treatment and disposal of pig wastewater draining to Sungai Punggol. 12 pp.

1979. Comprehensive plan for the Ponggol pig estates. 100 pp.

Dodd, J.C., Ravishanker, P.1979. Wastewater treatment alternatives for intensive pig farming estates. 9 pp.

Edi, I.W. 1987. Effect of mixing time on biogas production. 20 pp.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1985. Animal waste management and utilization: Singapore. Project findings and recommendations. Terminal Report. FAO, Rome Italy. AG: DP/SIN/74/006.26 pp.

Forster, D.L.1979. A framework for economic analysis of pig wastes. 37 pp.

Goh, A C. 1981. Results of tests on chemical treatment of pig wastewaters using the EDEX system.65 pp.

Goh, A C., Lee, B.Y.1983. Piggery waste treatmentby high-rate algae ponds: Phase II Completion Report.200 pp.

Hols, H. 1984. Evaluation of the PPRTI digester performance 1979-1981. 12 pp.

1984. Total recycle of the PPRTI plant. 12 pp.

Jung, D.I.1987. Performance ofthe 15 cubic metre anaerobic digester using diluted raw pigwaste with recycle. 14 pp.

Lee, B.Y., Low, C.F., Ravishanker, P., Yao, C.L. 1979. Pig waste treatment in Japan.130 pp.

Low, C.F. 1988. Development and administration of Ponggol Phase II PFA.25 pp.

Poon, C.T. 1979. Biogas energy from anaerobic fermentation. 66 pp.

PPD (Primary Production Department). 1982. Guidelines for the planning and construction of pig farm waste treatment systems. PPD, Ministry of National Development, Republic of Singapore. 36 pp.

Seo, Y.C. 1987. Performance of a 1500 m³ anaerobic digester using pigwaste in Ponggol, Singapore. 20 pp.

Siew, T.W., Ngiam, T.T., Taiganides, E.P. 1979. Briefing of MND Minister, Teh Cheang Wan, and aides. 20 pp.

Silverio, C.M. 1987. Performance of a 15 m³ biogas digester at different hydraulic detention times.31 pp.

Sim, T.S., Taiganides, E.P.1980. Biological treatment of wastewaters. In Proceedings of a workshop on Microbiology and Human Welfare in Singapore, 14-15 November 1980. Singapore Society of Microbiology, Republic of Singapore. pp 61-68.

Taiganides, E.P. 1976. Calculations to estimate cost of pig waste treatment for Singapore pig estates. 16 pp.

1978. Travel report to Kuala Lumpur: rotary screen inspection. 2 pp.

1979. Biogas - Energy recovery from animal wastes: background information. 45 pp.

1979. Central treatment plants: factors. 20 pp.

1980. Central treatment plant for WWS 19 - proposal for a demonstration plant. 30 pp.

1980. Rebates schemes for the rapid construction of wastewater treatment plants. 30 pp.

1982. Rebates: implementation costs. 22 pp.

Taiganides, E.P., Bhattarai, K.K., Yap, B.C., Lee, K.W. 1988. Training engineers with hands-on research mini-projects. In Proceedings of the First World Congress on Engineering and Education Training, 13-15 November 1988. University of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Taiganides, E.P., Choo, P.Y., Yap, T.C., ed. 1987. Pig farming in Malaysia. Proceedings of a workshop on pig farming, 7-9 January 1987, Port Dickson, N. Sembilon, Malaysia. Animal Waste Management and Pollution Control, Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. UNDP/FAO-MAL/84/001, 128 pp.

Taiganides, E.P., Ho, Y.K, Ngiam, T.T.1977. Waste disposal, disease control, and production management at pig feedlots in Europe. 38 pp.

Taiganides, E.P., Hols, H. 1984. Design and performance of biogas plants. In Proceedings of the ASEAN Workshop on Biogas Technology, 9-13 October 1984, K Trengannu, Malaysia. Ministry of Science, Technology, and Environment, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 256-267.

Taiganides, E.P., Lee, B.Y., Chou, K.C. 1979. Animal waste management in Singapore. Agricultural Wastes, 1(2), 129-141.

Taiganides, E.P., Mensch, R.L., Ngiam, T.T. 1982. Pig waste management seminar/exhibition. 30 pp.

Taiganides, E.P., Ngiam, T.T., Yap, B.C. 1982. Waste treatment technologies in Australia. 38 pp.

Taiganides, E.P., Ravishanker, P. 1979. Pilot treatment plant for pig wastewatershed No. 19: alternative designs and costs. 60 pp.

Thaveesak N. 1987. Performance of a 15 cubic metre digester using raw pigwaste with sludge recycle. 33 pp.

Thiruchelvam, S. 1979. Pig and poultry production and waste recycle in Japan. 18 pp.

Yap, B.C. 1988. Research and training in waste resource recovery biotechnologies and pollution control. Completion Report. 70 pp.

Chapter 2

Choo, P.Y. 1986. Management of intensive PFA. 70 pp.

Mensch, R.L. 1984. Pig farm engineering. Termination Report. 36 pp.

Miner, J.R.1981. Computer program to store and process pig breeding data. 10 pp.

Ong, H.K 1986. Feeds and feeding practices in Singapore. 100 pp.

Taiganides, E.P. 1976. Report of duty travel to Malaysia: pig farming practices. 3 pp.

Taiganides, E.P., Ho, Y.K., Ngiam, T.T.1977. Waste disposal, disease control, and production management at pig feedlots in Europe. 38 pp.

Tan, S.L. 1986. Epidemiology of pig diseases in intensive PFA. 35 pp.

Chapter 3

Esmay, M. 1981. Animal housing ventilation for the hot climatic conditions in Singapore. 49 pp.

Khoo, KH. 1986. Evaluation of the housing arrangements and construction of pig farms in the Ponggol PFA. 70 pp.

Parker, G.B. 1980. Improving the design and construction of pig farm structures. 60 pp.

Chapter 4

Lee, B.Y., Low, C.F., Ravishanker, P., Yao, C.L. 1979. Pig waste treatment in Japan. 130 pp.

Loh, S.H. 1986. Cost of pig housing facilities for a 200-sow and 600-sow model pig farm. 89 pp.

Mensch, R.L.1979. Handbook for layout of pig farms with flushing systems.30 pp.

1979. Critique of model farm plans. 10 pp.

1984. Singapore pig farm design handbook. 297 pp.

Mensch, R.L., Chin, H.K. 1981. ASEAN barn plans. 5 pp.

Soh, K.H. 1986. Unit costs of pig housing facilities.44 pp.

Willie, J.L.1980. Improving the design and construction of chicken and duck farm structures.65 pp.

Chapter 5

ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers).1983. Manure production and characteristics. ASAE, St Joseph, MI, USA. Agricultural Engineers Yearbook of Statistics D384.

Dodd, J.C. 1978. Treatment and disposal of pig wastewaters in the Ponggol River Estuary: conceptual and interim plans. 18 pp.

Goh, A C. 1980. Potability of lagoon effluent. 15 pp.

Khoo, T.H., Taiganides, E.P. 1976. Pig waste stabilization rates. 4 pp.

Mensch, R.L. 1978. Cesspit performance and management studies. 58 pp.

Miner, J.R. 1981. System to collect lagoon sludge and/or lagoon effluent and transport it to tidal ponds for polishing treatment. 15 pp.

1981. An assessment ofthe water quality impact of pig farming on the Ponggol River, Serangoon River and potential beach sites along the Straits of Johore. 21pp.

Mohajit, Bhattarai, K.K., Taiganides, E.P., Yap, B.C. 1989. Struvite deposits in pipes and aerators. Biological Wastes, 30, 133-147.

Ngian, M.F., Mensch, R.L. 1978. Report on the daily variations [of constituent concentrations] in cesspit effluents. 17 pp.

Puspa, D.N.L. 1986. Standards methods of laboratory tests for waste parameters and removal efficiencies in chemically aided clarifiers. 48 pp.

Rachadawan, P.-A.1987. Bacteriological analyses of pig wastewater recycle system at Sembawang, Singapore. 52 pp.

Taiganides, E.P. 1977. Report of duty travel to USA and Rome: sampling equipment. 7 pp.

1977. Bioengineering properties of feedlot wastes. In Taiganides, E.P., ea., Animal wastes. Elsevier Publishing Co. Ltd, London, UK.135 pp.

Teo, S.S., Taiganides, E.P., Yap, T.C. 1988. Engineering design parameters of wastes from pig farms in Malaysia. Biological Wastes, 24, 95-104.

Chapter 6

Miner, J.R. 1978. Investigations on production of malodours at the Jalan Kayu pig estate. 37 pp.

Ngian, M.F., Scammel, G.W., Nah, K.C. 1980. The influence of dietary fibre and zeolite intake on the composition and odour of pig feces. 6 pp.

Ravishanker, P. 1978. Odour studies at Jalan Kayu lagoon. 15 pp.

Scammel, G.W. 1979. Malodour studies and surveys in the Jalan Kayu pig estate. 66 pp.

Taiganides, E.P. 1978. Olfaction and malodour: principles and factors to consider. 12 pp.

Chapter 7

Becker, E.W. 1979. Microbiology and evaluation of HRAP system. 99 pp.

Buelna, G.1987. Evaluation of various flocculants for the recovery of algae biomass on pigwaste. 20 pp.

Buelna, G., Bhattarai, K.K., de la Noue, J., Taiganides, E.P. 1990. Evaluation of various flocculants for the recovery of algae biomass grown on pig-waste. Biological Wastes, 31, 211-222.

Dodd, J.C. 1978. Production and use of micro-algae biomass. 9 pp.

Dongjai, K. 1987. The effectiveness of photozone in removing algae and bacteria from algae wastewaters. 55 pp.

Goh, A.C., Lee, B.Y. 1983. Piggery waste treatment by high-rate algae ponds: Phase II Completion Report. 200 pp.

IDRC (International Development Research Centre).1980. Wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Report of a workshop on high-rate algae ponds, Singapore, 27-29 February 1980. IDRC, Ottawa, Ont., Canada. IDRC-154e, 47 pp.

Kempis, E.P. 1987. Concentration of heavy metals in the pig waste treatment plant at Ponggol. 22 pp.

Kossila, V. 1982. Design of feeding wastes to pigs. 40 pp.

Lee, B.Y. 1979. The utilization of pig wastewater for algal protein recovery in high-rate ponds. 8 pp.

Lee, B.Y., Dodd, J.C. 1979. Pig wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery by high rate algae ponds. Phase I Completion Report. 44 pp.

Lee, B.Y., Yap, J. 1979. Report on pre-project tour to Israel, West Germany, and Thailand. 17 pp.

Managaban, L.M. 1987. Effect of pH on algal dominance. 15 pp.

- 1987. Toxicity evaluation of waste-grown algae. 23 pp.

Narumon, S.1986. Treatment of dilute pig wastewater using high-rate algae ponds: effect of hydraulic detention time. 30 pp.

Ngian, M.F. 1978. Studies on the utilization of piggery wastes. 14 pp.

Pornthip, P.1987. Heavy metal concentrations in the high rate algae total recycle system at Sembawang, Singapore. 64 pp.

Roongnapa, K. 1987. Effect of varied organic loading rates of pig waste on Moina sp. production in high-rate algae ponds. 37 pp.

Sandbank, R., Poon, C.T. 1980. Design of an experimental dissolved air flotation algae harvester. 12 pp.

Sawitri, C. 1986. Concentrating algae slurries using the DAF and the centrifuge. 38 pp.

Somchai, C. 1987. Utilization of dried sludge and algae effluent by weaner pigs. 30 pp.

Supajjunya, N., Bhattarai, K.K., Taiganides, E.P. 1987. Effect of hydraulic detention time on treatment of dilute pig wastewaters using high-rate algae ponds. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 15(1),23-29.

Taiganides, E.P. 1976. Report of duty travel to Thailand: algae research at Kasetsart University. 11 pp.

- 1977. Report of duty travel to Gi-Gi in Italy: aeration and SCP fermentations. 3 pp.

Tan, B.T. 1981. Feasibility study of the high-rate algae pond treatment system for piggery waste. 55 pp.

Chapter 8

Ngian, M.F. 1979. Solid fermentation of piggery wastes using Rebreath as inoculum. 7 pp.

Ngian, M.F., Thiruchelvam, S. 1979. A nutritional evaluation of oxidation ditch mixed liquor. 10 pp.

1979. A nutritional evaluation of dried pig feces. 10 pp.

Ravishanker, P.1981. On-farm under-slat aeration. Pig and Poultry Research and Training Institute, Primary Production Department, Ministry of National Development, Republic of Singapore. PPRTI Annual Report. 8 pp.

Scammel, G.W. 1978. Intermediate report on fungi fermentation studies. 66 pp.

- 1980. Final report and recommendations. 28 pp.

Sim, T.S.1980. Mycotoxins in animal wastes and feeds. 50 pp.

Thambirajah, J.J. 1980. Solid-state surface fermentation of pig faeces supplemented with carbohydrate sources. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 8(1), 1-8.

Chapter 9

Cornell, M. 1983. Unit costs of construction bids for PPP. 200 pp. Cornell, M., Anderson, J.L. 1983. Specifications for sedimentation tanks. 42 pp.

1983. Construction drawings for Phase 2. 170 pp.

1983. Specifications for oxidation ditch. 48 pp.

1983. Specifications for anaerobic digester. 48 pp.

1983. Construction design report for PPP. 182 pp.

1983. Specifications for progressive cavity pumps. 38 pp.

1983. Specifications for chemical dosing equipment. 40 pp.

1983. Specifications for decanter. 38 pp.

Cornell, M., Anderson, J.L., Seward, G.S. 1983. PPP - Preliminary report for Phase 2 contract. 80 pp.

Cornell, M., Derrick, B.F. 1983. PPP - Preliminary report for Phase 1 contract. 65 pp.

- 1983. Construction drawings for Phase 1. 44 pp.

Georgaiadis, A., Cornell, M. 1983. Engineering consultant contract. 66 pp.

Mensch, R L. 1979. On-farm waste management: Termination Report. 25 pp.

Millis, D. 1983. Calculations for the structural components of the PPP. 75 pp.

Rannfelt, C., Doeve, A., Taiganides, E.P. 1982. Briefing report for consultants on the pigwaste treatment and utilization demonstration project. 10 pp.

Ravishanker, P. 1979. Wastewater treatment and utilization: study tour to USA. 49 pp.

Taiganides, E.P.1982. Preliminary systems report for the Ponggol Pigwaste plant. 28 pp.

Taiganides, E.P., Ngiam, T.T., Yap, B.C. 1982. Waste treatment technologies in Australia. 38 pp.

Chapter 10

Agustine, L.1987. Concentration of heavy metals in the pigwaste treatment plant at Ponggol, Singapore.25 pp.

Barcelon, E. 1987. Sludge drying in open sand filter beds at different solid flux rates. 50 pp.

Bharata, K. 1987. Sludge drying and mechanical harvesting on sand beds. 43 pp.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1985. Pig waste treatment and utilization demonstration project: Singapore. Project findings and recommendations. Terminal Report. Government Cooperative Programme, FAO, Rome, Italy. FAO/GCP/SIN/001/AUL. 31 pp.

Goh, AC., Woon, C.C. 1981. On-farm waste treatment system - an economic analysis of the lagoon system. 55 pp.

1982. Dewatering of storage pit sludge. 75 pp.

Griansak, C.1987. Composting of dried lagoon sludge in open windrow piles. 25 pp.

Hols, H. 1983. Pig waste treatment with nitrification-denitrification. 30 pp.

1983. Solids dewatering with filter belt press. 17 pp.

Idryati, V. 1987. Performance of a 1500 m³ digester in Ponggol, Singapore. 14 pp.

Inswiasri, S.1987. Drying of sludge in open sand-drying beds. 35 pp.

Liliansari, L. 1987. Composting process of dried digested sludge in open windrow piles. 14 pp.

Mensch, R.L. 1979. Handling solids wastes from cesspits. 63 pp.

1982. Seminar on flushing systems. 30 pp.

Mensch, R.L., Miner, J.R., Taiganides, E.P., Chin, H.K. 1980. Engineering drawings for Farm CF92. 4 pp.

Miner, J.R. 1981. Proposed integrated waste collection and treatment scheme to serve the commercial farms in Ponggol Phase I. 5 pp.

1981. Handling of sludge from anaerobic lagoons. 83 pp.

1981. Background materials for the selection of methods of pig wastewater treatment and solids handling. 27 pp.

1981. Allocating the cost of pig farm wastewater treatment. 12 pp.

Miner, J.R., Goh, A., Taiganides, E.P.1983. Chemical treatment of anaerobic swine manure lagoon effluent and contents. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), 26(4), 1177-1180.

Mohajit.1986. Struvite crystallization in pipes and aerators: growth and removal. 38 pp.

1987. Struvite crystallization in piles and aerators: formulation. 40 pp.

Panaligan, C.A. 1986. Operation of biogas digesters and sedimentation tank at low hydraulic detention times and different overflow rates respectively of pig wastewaters. 163 pp.

Paran, A.P. 1987. Performance of a Caterpillar 3306 natural gas engine running on biogas. 62 pp.

Ploenpit, V.-a. 1987. Sludge dewatering by dewatering centrifuge using polymers. 22 pp.

Preeda, Y. 1987. Solids loading and performance of the modified anaerobic lagoon in Ponggol. 23 pp.

Ramirez, A.M. 1986. Biogas production with and without sludge heating in 1500 m³ anaerobic digester. 128 pp.

Ramirez, A.M., Bhattarai, K.K., Taiganides, E.P.1987. Biogas production with and without sludge heating in a 1500 cubic meter anaerobic digester. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 15(2), 129-138.

Ravishanker, P. 1983. Analysis on unit processes and operations in pig waste treatment and technologies.180 pp.

Rayos, L.V.1986. A case study of construction management for pig waste treatment plant in Singapore. 64 pp.

Saimorn, L.1987. Sludge composting in open windrow piles: predominance of fungi and affect of sludge age and inoculum. 20 pp.

Siah, C.S.1986. Unit costs of pigwaste treatment facilities. 29 pp.

Sittiporn, K 1987. Dewatering of digester sludge using a decanter centrifuge. 26 pp.

Suazo, R.B. 1987. Sludge accumulation in the modified anaerobic lagoon. 29 pp.

Taiganides, E.P.1980. Biogas - Energy recovery from animal wastes. Part I. FAO World Animal Review, 35, 2-15.

1980. Biogas - Energy recovery from animal wastes. Part II. FAO World Animal Review, 36, 15-24.

1986. Animal farming effluent problems - an integrated approach: resource recovery in large scale pig farming. Water Science and Technology, 18, 47-55.

Teah, S.S.1986. Engineering unit costs for materials, equipment, and unit facilities in treatment plants. 72 pp.

Woon, C,C., Ong, KS.1985. Decanter and gas engine generator operation data for 1985 at the PPP. 10 pp.

Woon, C.C., Ong, K.S., Lim, K.C., Chin, H.K. 1986. Operational data for the 19 sampling points of the Ponggol Pigwaste Plant (PPP) from 2 May 1985 to 31 March 1986. 100 pp.

Yap, B.C.1988. Design, operation, and performance of the aerated anaerobic lagoon in the PPP. 17 pp.

Yutiamco, A.P.1987. Efficiencies in the conversion of biogas to electricity. 20 pp.