1. A summary of the Singapore experience
This chapter presents an overview of the concepts and approaches considered in planning and integrating livestock production with environmental goals. General technical results of biotechnologies that were researched and tested in full-scale applications are illustrated with photographs, figures, and tables. The chapter highlights the period from 1975 to 1987 during which intensive pig feedlot farming areas were developed in two districts of the Republic of Singapore. Limited available land (5 m² per standing pig) and environmental pollution control constraints created unique situations and opportunities for research and development of pig housing facilities integrated with waste treatment, resource recovery, and recycle systems. The projects were funded by international agencies and the Government of Singapore. The chapter also delineates the major considerations both in the formulation of government policies on livestock production and in the reversal of these policies.