Cover Image
close this book Measuring drought and drought impacts in Red Sea Province
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document A Note on Orthography and Other Conventions
View the document Executive summary of the research
Open this folder and view contents 1. Introduction to Red Sea Province
Open this folder and view contents 2. Measuring drought and food insecurity in Red Sea province: in 1987 and 1988: a technique for Pthe rapid assessment of large areas. Roy Cole
Open this folder and view contents 3. Drowght, food stress, and the flood and rainfall record for Red Sea Province. Roy Cole
Open this folder and view contents 4. Drought, the market, and the impact of food aid in Red Sea Province, 1980 to 1989. Roy Cole
Open this folder and view contents 5. Nutritional status of children in Red Sea Province, November 1985 to November 1987. Mary Cole and Roy Cole
Open this folder and view contents 6. The nutritional status of children in Red Sea Province, July-October 1989: a supplement to the November 1985-November 1987 results. Mary L. Cole and Roy Cole
Open this folder and view contents 7. Land tenure, agricultural labour, drought and food stress in the Gash, Gash Dai and Tokar agricultural areas. Roy Cole
Open this folder and view contents 8. Changes in tree density on five sites in Red Sea Province: early 1960s to 1989. Roy Cole
Open this folder and view contents 11. Conclusion
View the document Technical glossary

A Note on Orthography and Other Conventions

The editor has endeavoured to follow the orthography adopted by modern Arabists throughout this collection of papers. However, some commonly used words in English, for example, "Arabian", have been spelled without the 'ayn marker, ""'. Other Arabic words that are commonly spelled a certain way in English are spelled according to that spelling. For example, "suudaan" has been spelled "Sudan", alkhartuum has been spelled Khartoum. The spelling of proper names was done on a case by case basis according to preferred spelling by the person in question. For example, if an author cited spells his name Osman instead of 'uthmaan, the accepted spelling by Arabists, I have used the spelling preferred by the person cited For all other words I have used the Aribists' spelling. I have followed, incidentally, the Arabic system of alphabetising authors, first name, father's name, grandfather's name, rather than attempt to adopt the western family name system.

I have preserved the definite article, "al" throughout, even before the haruuf ashshamsiva in order to avoid confusion. For example, al Sa'ud is used instead of asSa'ud. It should be noted that Sudanese pronunciation differs from Modem Standard Arabic pronunciation in the following sounds:

qaaf for qaaf

qaaf for ghayn

siin for thaa° or deal for thaa°

zaay for thaal and thaa°

zhaa° for dhaadh

The list below represents the symbols used throughout the present collection of papers. Shadda, or gemination, is represented by a doubling of the consonants as in, for example, the word shadda itself. The long vowels, alif, waaw, and yaa° when acting as a seat for hamza have been transcribed in the short vowel form with °, hamza, immediately following as in gabaai°1, "tribes". Admittedly, this method presents some awkwardness in such words as lu°lu°, "pearls". These short vowels are: fatha, dhamma, and kasra respectively. Sukuun has not been transliterated nor has wasla

'

the consonant 'aye.

°

the glottal stop, hamza.

aa

the long vowel alif.

a

the short vowel fatha, madd alif, alif maqsuura, and taa° marbuuta.

aw

the dipthong fatha waaw.

ay

the dipthong fatha yaa°

d

the short vowel dhamma.

dh

the consonant dhaadh.

g

the consonant qaaf (except for administrative terminology or where the Modern Standard Arabic "q" is more appropriate).

gh

the letter ghayn.

h

the consonants haa° (aspirated) and haa° (unaspirated).

i

the short vowel kasra.

iin

the third person plural suffix.

iw

the dipthong kasra waaw.

kh

the letter khaaf.

s

the consonants siin and saadh, and, depending on the word, thaa°.

sh

the letter shiin.

th

the letters thaal and thaa°.

uu

the long vowel waaw between two consonants.

uw

the dipthong dhamma waaw.

uy

the dipthong dhamma yaa°.

w

the long vowel waaw in initial position or after a long vowel or the short vowels fatha or kasra.

y

the long vowel yaa° and the nisba suffix.

z

the consonants thal and zaay.

zh

the consonant zhaa°.

Spelling of words in Tu Bedaawi has followed the Arabic pattern. With sounds that have no equivalent in Arabic the nearest equivalent in English was used.