| Tools for teaching - A visual aids workshop, and instruction manual for health educators |
|Session 10. WORKSHOP COMPLETION 10.0|
1) Participants should correct their own examinations.
2) Read each question and ask a volunteer to give his/her answer. Ask other participants if they agree and why or why not. Explain each answer to the participants so that there will be no doubt that everyone understands.
TAKE-HOME EXAMINATION KEY
1) Puppet show presentations are appropriate only for small children.
FALSE. Puppet shows are an excellent way to present familiar messages in a fresh, frequently humorous fashion to audiences of all ages. Sending an educational message through the mouths of puppets also enables the health educator to discuss sensitive issues or to employ a common vernacular which may be clearly understood by the audience. Puppets can get away with saying things that might otherwise be inappropriate.
2) A flip chart would be a good way to present alternative methods of water purification.
TRUE. A flip chart is the ideal visual aid to supplement a lecture/discussion about alternative methods of doing something or separate-but-equal factors influencing a given situation. A flip chart presents visual images one at a time, thereby focusing full audience attention on each alternative or factor being discussed.
3) Appropriate treatment of diseases and injuries is more important to primary health care than a comprehensive health education program.
FALSE. According to the World Health Organization, health education is the first of eight essential elements necessary for a successful primary health care program. Appropriate treatment or diseases and injuries is ranked seventh after food and nutrition, safe water, maternal and child health, immunization, and disease prevention and control. Distribution of essential medicines and drugs is ranked eighth.
4) Sequence posters can be used to describe events occuring in a specific order.
TRUE. Sequence posters are the most effective way of presenting information about events that take place in a predetermined order. The use of sequence posters allows the health educator to present the steps one at a time as well as to display all the steps in order so that the audience can see the relationship of one step or event to the next. Sequence posters can also be used to check audience understanding and evaluate the educational effectiveness of a health message by asking volunteers from the audience to place the posters in their proper sequence.
5) Health education is a serious business. We should not trivialize our message with humor.
FALSE. Health education is a serious business. As health educators, we need to get our message across in whatever way we can. Humor is frequently a very effective device because it usually sets people at ease and allows them to learn in a relaxed, friendly, positive environment.
6) Methods of toilet construction can best be taught by using comparative posters.
FALSE. Toilet construction is a sequential series of events. A discussion about toilet construction would thus be best supported by sequence posters or a flip chart. Comparative posters are, by definition, most effective when dealing with oppositions, e.g. factors supporting good health contrasted with those that contribute to disease, or a healthy, safe environment contrasted to dirty, unsafe surroundings.
7) A learning game is one way to stimulate maximum audience participation.
TRUE. Learning games are an excellent way to actively involve all the members of an audience. The health educator should plan these activities thoughtfully with respect to the number of people taking part. Card games and board games are usually most effective with a limited number of participants. Team activities and action games can often involve larger groups.
8) Visual aids can be constructed from low-cost, locally available materials.
TRUE. Effective visual aids do not have to be expensive. Box board and brown paper are perfectly adequate for posters and illustrations. Felt pens, crayons, and poster paint can provide color. Many visual aids can be constructed using "found" objects such as sticks, stones, coconut shells, fabric scraps, tongue depressors, paper and plastic bags, magazine pictures, etc. You just have to use your imagination and be willing to experiment.
9) Health educators should deliver their message in an authoritative manner so that people will do as they are told.
FALSE. In the words of Dr. Halfdan Mahler, Director-General of the World Health Organization: "Health educators should see to it that they put an abrupt end to that type of health education which was concerned with telling people how to act...No longer today should health workers act as minor deities, expecting mortals to behave in certain predetermined ways... the primary role of health education is to promote individual and social awareness, leading to people's involvement and self-reliance." (Mahler, "'Health for All - Everyone's Concern", World Health, April/May 1983.)
10) Comic books can be produced inexpensively with a mimeograph machine.
TRUE. Although color is nice, it is not necessary. A well-developed storyline with an element of suspense and a strong ending, clearly drawn pictures, and legible script are the most important elements for a successful comic. Pictures and script can be drawn directly on to a Gestescript stencil and run off in quantity on a mimeograph machine. If there is no mimeograph machine available, the stencil can be taped to a silkscreen and reproduced in that manner.
11) Taking an active part in one's own learning activities stimulates self-reliance in other areas of one's life as well.
TRUE. The traditional pattern of authoritative teacher/ passive student places the student in an inferior position. Encouraging students to take responsibility for their own learning is a gesture of respect that builds self-confidence and self-esteem as the student learns to make decisions and accomplish tasks through his/her own efforts.
12) A health educator should help people explore alternatives, make choices, and accept responsibility for their decisions.
TRUE. To quote again from Dr. Mahler: "Health education needs to provide the individual with knowledge about alternative types of behavior and their outcomes, so that she or he can be in a position to make choices and accept their consequences." (Ibid.)
PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.
13) Define "visual educational aid".
A visual educational aid is any item which can be seen by the audience and which supports and supplements the verbal presentation by concretizing and clarifying the educational message. Visual aids can also reinforce the educational message by encouraging and stimulating audience participation.
14) What are the design requirements of an effective visual aid?
An effective visual aid is:
• simple (in terms of both concept and design)
• easily understood
• easy to use
• sensitive to local customs and traditions
• colorful (to attract and hold attention)
• appropriate (in terms of subject, occasion, and audience)
• stimulating (to encourage maximum audience participation)
• cost effective
15) List the twelve steps in the design process.
• analyze and define the problem
• identify the target audience
• compose a single-item message
• brainstorm concepts
• evaluate and select
• develop idea
• share idea - ask for feedback
• modify design/concept
• complete finished artwork
• test with sample audience
• observe audience response - ask for audience response
• modify as required
16) Describe how to pretest a visual aid with a sample audience.
• Introduce the activity: Introduce yourself to the audience. Explain that you are trying out some new material that you are developing in a workshop. Tell the audience that you would like to have their honest response to the visual aids and presentation strategy that you will be using.
• Carry out the activity: Have someone observe and take notes on the presentation technique and audience reaction.
• Evaluate the activity: Ask the audience for suggestions and comments on the visual material and presentation technique. Ask open-ended questions that require an opinion, an explanation, or a description of feelings. Avoid questions that can be answered YES or NO.
FILL IN THE BLANK SPACES IN EACH STATEMENT BY SELECTING A WORD FROM THE FOLLOWING LIST. NO WORD MAY BE USED MORE THAN ONCE. THERE ARE MORE WORDS THAN SPACES.
17) A good way to generate alternative solutions to a problem is by brainstorming.
18) We learn the most by participating.
19) A truly effective visual aid and presentation strategy can be developed only by frequent evaluation.
20) A display poster should be dynamic, bold, and colorful.
21) A good visual aid is appropriate for the situation and the target audience.
22) Every health education message should be direct, accurate, and understandable.
23) Visual aids should be sensitive to the customs and traditions of the target audience.
24) The most effective educational strategies attempt to stimulate maximum audience participation.