Cover Image
close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainee guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
Open this folder and view contents Conducting the training program
Open this folder and view contents Presenting the sessions
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning

Total time 2 hours

Goals

- To refresh the memorial of the trainees about flowering cycles, pollination, seeds, seed germination, seed dispersal, basic seed storage and point out our leek of knowledge about seed germination and dispersal among many tropical species,

- To gather seeds,

- To instruct the trainees on vetting up seed collection records,

- To instruct the trainees in basic seed storage.

Overview

This session reviews the flowering cycle and seeds from pollination to germination. It is necessary to start at the beginning as moat trainees will have studied those cycles in North America and need to recognize the differences in tropical species. The trainees will also gather seeds and record data.

Exercises

1. Flowers & Seeds

2. Seed Collection

Materials

Flip charts, marker pens, tape.

Exercise 1 Flowers & Seeds

Total time 1 hour

Overview

Many of the participants will have learned in North American schools the cycles of flowering and seed development. This lecture refreshes their memories and has them relate the cycles to African trees.

Procedures

Activities

1. The technical trainer states that this morning is a quick refresher for everyone and invites a botanist in the group to add his/her comments throughout the lecture. It is recommended that the following outline be put on newsprint and the trainees follow it as lecture is given.

Time

1 hour

FLOWERS

I. FLOWERS : Many different colors, shapes and sizes

II. FLOWER TYPES:

A. Male flower

B. female flower

C. Complete flowers - bisexual

III. TYPES OF TREES:

A. Monoecius - staminate (male) flowers and pistillate (female) flowers on same tree, (pine; Douglas fir).

B. Dioecious - staminate and pistillate flowers occuring on separate trees (willow; poplar).

C. Polygamo - monoecius - complete flower plus staminate and pistillate flowers on same tree (Buckeye).

D. Polygamo - Dioecious - perfect flower plus either staminate of pistillate flowers (Buckthorn).

NOTE : All of the above types of trees can bear seeds except the dioecious tree that produces staminate flowers.


Figure 1 : Flowering cycle/seed maturity pollination

IV. POLLINATORS

A. Wind

B. Insects

C. Birds

D. Others - mice, bats

Two nuclei penetrate the ovule and double fertilization occurs.

1. One fertilization unites egg to form embryo.

2. Other fertilization unites with two polar nuclei to form endosperm.

SEEDS

I. Mature Seed

A. Three - six months after fertilization

B. One year after fertilization - pine

C. Some take more time

II. Formation

A. Mature embryo embedded in endosperm (endosperm can be small or absent)

B. Seed coat (integument) forms around the ovule

III. Embryo = Germ

A. Composed of:

1. Seed leaves - Cotyledon - mostly two (palms one, pines four plus)

a. manufacture food

b. have stored food

2. Bud - Plumule

3. Stem - Hypocatyl

4. Rudimentary root - radicle

5. Seed Coats a. hard (pines) b. soft c. leathery (cypress)

IV. Types of Seeds

A. True seeds (from pine)

B. Dry fruits: fruit is seed (oak)

C. Fleshy fruit (apple)

V. Ripening

A. Chemical change

B. Hardening

C. Dry

D. Color change

VI. Seed Dispersal

A. Wind

1. Light seeds

2. Seeds with wings

B. Mammals

1. Rodents

2. Animals

C. Water

D. Fish

F. Man

VII. Seed Collection - Records

A. Seed Maturity

B. Ripeness

C. When to collect

1. Early collection - not ripe

2. Late collection - few viable seeds left

D. Methods

1. Climbing

2. Clippers

3. Cutters

4. Shaking

5. Logging

6. Bamboo poles

7. Collect off ground

8. Spread sheet below tree

E. Seed Extraction

1. Air dry*

2. Oven kiln

3. Depulping

4. Dewinging

5. Floating

6. Winnowing

*Note: It is important in air drying that birds do not eat the seeds. Air drying is also the most used and practical method of seed extraction.

F. Dormancy

1. Internal dormancy (triggering internal chemical reactions)

2. External dormancy (seed coat permeability)

G. Seed Treatment

1. Burning

2. Soaking

3. Boiling

4. Filing - soaking

5. Cutting

6. Tumbling - (with grit)

7. Others

H. For Germination to Occur

1. Internal factors - ripe

2. External factors

a. moisture

b. temperature

3. Dormancy

4. Oxygen

5. Light

I. Seed Storage

1. Dry - cold: in sealed containers; pine, cypress

2. Moist - cold: oak, maple

3. Room temperatures Acacia, eucalyptus

4. Other possibilities a. partial vacuum b. dry freeze c. hole in ground - bury in sealed plastic bags

5. How dose nature do it? peat moss (turba)

6. Small containers

Exercise 2 Seed Collection

Total time 45 minutes

Overview

The trainees collect as many varieties of seeds as possible. They try to identify seed species. The trainees begin to look at vegetation in the environment from a reproductive point of view.

Procedure

Activities

1. This exercise is done immediately after the lecture in Exercise 1. The technical trainer asks the trainees to collect individually as many seeds from different sources as they can in the next 15 minutes.

Time

15 minutes

Activities

2. After 15 minutes, the trainees are asked to place the seeds on newsprint on the floor for display. They are to write under each species whether or not seed is mature and how the trainee thinks it is dispersed.

Time

15 minutes

Activities

3. The technical trainer makes a few remarks about the displays and points out the accuracy of identification, dispersal methods, etc.

Time

10 minutes

Activities

4. The technical trainer reviews the goals of this session and asks that the trainees save the mature seeds they have collected until tomorrow.

Time

5 minutes