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close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainee guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
Open this folder and view contents Conducting the training program
Open this folder and view contents Presenting the sessions
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 19 : Introduction to extension

Total time 2 hours

Goals

- To introduce extension work,

- To give historical overview,

- To examine specific goals of extension,

- To begin the process of developing an extension agent.

Overview

Each trainee, regardless of their job assignment, will eventually become involved in forestry extension work. This session begins by giving the historical overview of extension work in North America and then discusses the "Six Axioms of Forestry Extension".

Exercises

1. Extension: Historical Overview and Some Techniques Used in the Past

2. Six Axioms for Forestry Extension

Materials

Flip charts, marker pens, tape.

Exercise 1 Extension: Historical Overview and Some Techniques Used in the Past

Total Time 40 minutes

Overview

During the introduction to extension, it is important for the trainees to understand that the extension movement has one hundred years of history. Although it may be a new concept in developing countries, it comes as a tried and true system for helping farmers. Experiences are shared to help the trainees understand that the extension worker is one who must interact on a one to one basis in order to help a community develop.

Procedures

Activities

1. Lecture on the history of extension outline:

- 1862 Morrill Act - Land Grant Colleges,

- 1887 Research - Experimentation,

- 1914 Extension, - 1940 - 1950

- Good Neighbor Policy of Harry S. Truman, "Partners in Progress".

For extension to be most effective, it must achieve:

General:

1. National concern to improve agrarian structures,

2. Rural population with high level of self-esteem,

3. Active participation in significant development programs, i.e. agrarian.

Specific Goals of Extension:

1. Significant objectives - precise, measurable, realistic,

2. Appropriate image,

3. Power - legal, money, political,

4. Institutional mystique,

5. Internal efficiency,

6. Effective communication with public,

7. Coordination with other agencies,

8. Democratic procedures.

Exercise 2 Six Axioms of Forestry Extension

Total time 1 hour 30 minutes

Overview

Participants become familiar with the basic rules of extension work. Since extension work is such an unstructured activity, the extensionist will find that there are long periods of time when he/she feels as if he/she is not doing anything and is tempted to do more; he/she may also wonder, from time to time, if what he/she is doing is actually advancing or retarding extension work in the community. In extension work, the temperament and sensitivity of the extensionist influences to a large degree how effective the work will be.

Procedures

Activities

1. The trainer posts on newsprint the following axioms and speaks about each one.

- The forestry extensionist should never do anything for people that they are able to do for themselves.

- The forestry extensionist should never encourage the use of resources from outside the community until all the resources within the community have been exhausted.

- The forestry extensionist should never try to organize people to deal with a need they do not recognize themselves (may have to educate them).

- The forestry extensionist's most important dedication must be to the sound local progress of his/her community.

- Forestry extension must be carried out from an understanding of the host culture and in terms of that culture.

- The forestry extensionist role in his/her community is transitory.

Time

30 minutes

Trainer’s Note: It is tempting to add a seventh axiom, which says that the above six should not be taken too seriously. If there is one single encompassing rule in extension work, it is that given the basic goals, the means ultimately are flexible and subject to variations according to specific conditions. The extensionist should understand the axioms of forestry extension well enough to follow them when possible and break them if necessary.

Activities

2. The trainer now asks the participants to break into groups of five and discuss ways in which they can be successful extensionists. The ideas are recorded on newsprint and presented to the entire group. The following are some examples that came out of our groups.

Ways to Be Successful Extensionists

We are not alone

Communication - contacts

Know when to compromise

Positive attitudes

Diplomacy

Know where to start

Cultural sensitivity

Technical competence

Be objective

Be aware of problems

Don't push own ideas

Keep it simple

Be a Mr. Tree

Work with counterpart

Be a resource

Be a good example

Get along with officials

Impart knowledge

Follow up on what you do

Do not spread yourself too thin

Follow the six points of extension

Be aware of external and internal resources

Transfer a system Work with people

Have a good reputation

Help others make decisions do not do it for them

Build extension bridges

Action speaks louder than words

Maintain a sense of humor

Quality vat quantity (do a few things well)

Be aware of group dynamics

Time

20 minutes-small group

30 minutes-large group

Activities

3. The trainer summarizes the session, and emphasizes that the trainees are becoming members of a historical tradition extension.

Time

30 minutes