| Forestry training manual for the Africa region |
Total time 4 hours 15 minutes
- To give information about the protection of a nursery from animals, disease, weeds and insects,
- To review record keeping practices,
- To have the trainees decide upon a standard record keeping format,
- Special projects Insect collection.
This session completes the technical presentations in establishing a nursery. The trainees will have the satisfaction of having planned, laid out, prepared soil and finally sowed the seeds in their own nursery. Also, record keeping is reviewed and trainees decide upon a standard format for keeping nursery records. Protection of a nursery is discussed in depth. The special project on insect collection is introduced in this session.
1. Protection and Summary of Week's Nursery Activity
2. Insect Collection
3. Record Keeping Practices - Decision Making
Flip chart paper, markers, tape, pins, insect collection bottles, cardboard.
Exercise 1 Protection of the Nursery and Summary Weeks' Activities
Total time 30 minutes
This is the final exercise focusing on establishing a nursery. The trainer will give a lecture on protection and summarize steps taken in the establishment of a nursery (there is additional time allotted in this session if nursery beds are not yet sown).
1. The technical trainer gives a lecture on protection from the outline posted on newsprint. The outline follows. 2. The technical trainer now reviews steps that have been taken so far and links them to the next exercise.
1. Small animals
a. mice/rats - rat poison
b. rabbits, sling shots
2. Large animals
c. horses, cattle
d. dogs, etc.
a. sowed seed
b. new seedling
c. as control insects
d. bird control
3) sling shot a
4) tin cane
4. Disease - damping off
1) sterile soil
2) sun and sterile sand
3) keep pH moderately acid
4) boiling water
b. in roots: upper part of roots infected, plants fall over, stems turn watery inside.
1) watering schedule
i. less often
ii. time of day
5. Weed control
1) weed early - late weeding is very costly
2) use in compost
a. grub worms (eats roots)
b. cut worms
e. spiders, mites, thrips
Exercise 2 Insect Collection
Total time 1 hour
The trainee for whom this is a special project introduces insect collection and has the participants collect insects. As Volunteers, they will have to collect insects for identification in the field.
1. The trainee for whom this is a special project demonstrates several ways to collect insects; he also should speak about the purpose of insect collection.
2. The participants collect insects.
3. The special project person does exercise wrap-up.
Trainer’s Note: The following is a newsprint lecture outline for insect collection.
1. Holes in leaves
- caterpillars, beetles, crickets
- soil insects - white grubs, wireworms
3. Leaf curling, wrinkling, yellowing
- sucking insects - aphids, leaf hoppers
4. Leaf speckling, spots of white
5. Black, sooty mold on leaves
- scale, aphids
6. Pitted, cupped leaves
7. Plant disappears at ground level
- cut worms, grazing animals
8. Holes in stem
Bug like invertebrates
1. Class Arachnida
- spiders, ticks, mites (2 body parts, 4 pairs of legs, no wings/antennae)
2. Class Crustacea
- sowbugs, pill bugs (2 pairs of antennae, 5 or more pairs of legs)
3. Class Chilopoda
- centipedes (one pair of legs per body segment)
4. Class Diplopoda
- millipedes (2 pairs of legs per body segment)
Preserving your bugs
- Hard bodied: Use alcohol killing jar; wrap jar with tape.
- Soft bodied: Boil in water for 30 seconds; preserve in alcohol
- Verlese sampler: Soil insects
- Use points (actual size) for small insects
- Attach with clear glue or nail polish
Species found at:
Damage also goes on here
- Use pencil or India ink
- Put label in jar if insect preserved in alcohol
- Store insects in closed box or container
- Moth flakes keep pests away
- Pack in hard sided container
- Pack with nylons, tissue or cotton
- Include sample or description of damage
Exercise 3 Record Keeping
Total time 1 hour 45 minutes
This exercise stresses the importance of record keeping, ask what data the trainees have and how they are going to record it. Finally, the trainees will go through a decision-making process about standardizing a record-keeping method and preparing a form.
1. The technical trainer starts this session by saying, "Remember yesterday when I asked you who wee keeping records for the nursery?" The technical trainer then remarks about the first exercise on record keeping and its importance. The trainer has two choices: he/she can (1) congratulate the participant(s) that have taken responsibility for keeping records or (2) make the point that the participants must take responsibility for keeping records, realizing that all parts of training build one upon the other.
2. The trainer asks the group what data they need to record for the nursery that they have just established. The trainer records data titles on newsprint.
3. The trainer says, "I feel you are ready to decide upon a standard format for recording nursery data. Please do so."
Trainer’s Note: No directions are given about the procedure or how to break into group(s). The trainers remain in the room and observe trainees organizing the project.
4. The trainer comments on the organization process which he and the other trainers have just observed. He/she asks for comments from the trainees about their own feelings over the last hour.
5. The trainer remarks about the data recording form, additions and/or deletions.