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close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainee guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
Open this folder and view contents Conducting the training program
Open this folder and view contents Presenting the sessions
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting

Total time 2 hours 30 minutes

Goals

- For the trainee's special project to be presented,

- To explore tree identification,

- To plant trees.

Overview

In this session the trainees learn about tree identification and are instructed in tree planting. They also plant trees in the area which they laid out and contoured in Session 25.

Exercises

1. Tree Identification

2. Tree Planting

Materials

Shovels, seedlings, watering cans.

Trainer’s Note: This session is a follow-up to Session 25 in which the trainees use rustic transits to contour and lay out a site for tree planting on a hillside or sloped area.

Exercise 1 Tree Identification

Total time 1 hour

Overview

This exercise is a special project given to one of the participants at the beginning of training.

Procedures

Activities

1. The trainee introduces the session using newsprint and states his/her goals for session.

Time

45 minutes

Activities

2. The trainee then proceeds with the following lecture.

Trainer’s Note: This lecture wee done by a trainee now serving in Kenya as a Peace Corps Volunteer. The trainee who accepts this as a special project will not do his/her project exactly as this one was done. We have included this lecture in the event that the technical trainer should decide not to use this as a special project.

Activities

3. The technical trainer comments and links this exercise to the exercise which follows.

Exercise 2 Tree Planting

Total time 1 hour 30 minutes

Overview

In this session, the trainees receive instruction on proper tree planting. The trainees then plant in the area which they have prepared in Session 25.

Procedure

Activities

1. Using a series of flip chart drawings, the trainer gives instructions in proper tree planting.

Time

20 minutes

Activities

2. The Trainees go back to the contoured site and plant trees. The technical trainers inspects the trees as planted.

Time

1 hour

Activities

3. The trainer does session wrap-up and links to catchments in Session 31.

Time

10 minutes


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TREE IDENTIFICATION

The following will be a brief review of concepts and terminology which are important in tree identification. No attempt will be made to make a comprehensive review because such information is readily available in most plant keys or botany texts.

Tree identification can be approached in several ways. The most common and popular method is the use of general tree identification manuals such as Peterson's Guide, The Golden Guide and other such "picture books". These books are excellent for learning common trees, amateur identification and general field reference. For professional purposes, however, more technical, precise sources must be consulted. Two such sources are the consultation of an expert in the discipline or comparison of the unknown to herbarium specimens. These two approaches, though quite acceptable, are generally not convenient. The most accepted method of proper identification is the use of technical keys. Though such keys are often quite extensive and detailed, they are also "state of the art" (unless you are consulting an outdated source) and therefore reliable. In addition, the use of such keys makes one aware of many aspects of the tree's biology that might otherwise have gone unnoticed.

Plants are classified in a hierarchical fashion based upon the presence of shared characteristics. Such classification is thought to reflect actual evolutionary relationships between plants. The basic taxa are: Kingdom, division, class, order, family, genus and species. Only the last three are useful for practical purposes. It is often helpful to know plant families and common genera because species within the same genus often require the same or similar nursery management.

The concept of a species is actually a much more nebulous concept than most people realize. More often than not the variation within a taxa is so great that subdivisions of the taxa (say species) are often delimited quite subjectively or even arbitrarily. The general biological definition of a species i. that group of individuals which is capable of interbreeding; any two individuals could mate and produce viable offspring. The use of such a definition is very difficult (delimiting species would require a tremendous series of "orgies") and a much more practical definition is that group of individuals which share common traits.

Species nomenclatures are of two types; there are common names and there are scientific names. Common names are not considered reliable. They are usually fine for local use, but are misleading otherwise. For example many species have different common names in different parts of their range. Also, common names often are used for individuals that a scientist would recognize as different species.