| Forestry training manual for the Africa region |
Total time 2 hours 30 minutes
- For the trainee's special project to be presented,
- To explore tree identification,
- To plant trees.
In this session the trainees learn about tree identification and are instructed in tree planting. They also plant trees in the area which they laid out and contoured in Session 25.
1. Tree Identification
2. Tree Planting
Shovels, seedlings, watering cans.
Trainer’s Note: This session is a follow-up to Session 25 in which the trainees use rustic transits to contour and lay out a site for tree planting on a hillside or sloped area.
Exercise 1 Tree Identification
Total time 1 hour
This exercise is a special project given to one of the participants at the beginning of training.
1. The trainee introduces the session using newsprint and states his/her goals for session.
2. The trainee then proceeds with the following lecture.
Trainer’s Note: This lecture wee done by a trainee now serving in Kenya as a Peace Corps Volunteer. The trainee who accepts this as a special project will not do his/her project exactly as this one was done. We have included this lecture in the event that the technical trainer should decide not to use this as a special project.
3. The technical trainer comments and links this exercise to the exercise which follows.
Exercise 2 Tree Planting
Total time 1 hour 30 minutes
In this session, the trainees receive instruction on proper tree planting. The trainees then plant in the area which they have prepared in Session 25.
1. Using a series of flip chart drawings, the trainer gives instructions in proper tree planting.
2. The Trainees go back to the contoured site and plant trees. The technical trainers inspects the trees as planted.
3. The trainer does session wrap-up and links to catchments in Session 31.
The following will be a brief review of concepts and terminology which are important in tree identification. No attempt will be made to make a comprehensive review because such information is readily available in most plant keys or botany texts.
Tree identification can be approached in several ways. The most common and popular method is the use of general tree identification manuals such as Peterson's Guide, The Golden Guide and other such "picture books". These books are excellent for learning common trees, amateur identification and general field reference. For professional purposes, however, more technical, precise sources must be consulted. Two such sources are the consultation of an expert in the discipline or comparison of the unknown to herbarium specimens. These two approaches, though quite acceptable, are generally not convenient. The most accepted method of proper identification is the use of technical keys. Though such keys are often quite extensive and detailed, they are also "state of the art" (unless you are consulting an outdated source) and therefore reliable. In addition, the use of such keys makes one aware of many aspects of the tree's biology that might otherwise have gone unnoticed.
Plants are classified in a hierarchical fashion based upon the presence of shared characteristics. Such classification is thought to reflect actual evolutionary relationships between plants. The basic taxa are: Kingdom, division, class, order, family, genus and species. Only the last three are useful for practical purposes. It is often helpful to know plant families and common genera because species within the same genus often require the same or similar nursery management.
The concept of a species is actually a much more nebulous concept than most people realize. More often than not the variation within a taxa is so great that subdivisions of the taxa (say species) are often delimited quite subjectively or even arbitrarily. The general biological definition of a species i. that group of individuals which is capable of interbreeding; any two individuals could mate and produce viable offspring. The use of such a definition is very difficult (delimiting species would require a tremendous series of "orgies") and a much more practical definition is that group of individuals which share common traits.
Species nomenclatures are of two types; there are common names and there are scientific names. Common names are not considered reliable. They are usually fine for local use, but are misleading otherwise. For example many species have different common names in different parts of their range. Also, common names often are used for individuals that a scientist would recognize as different species.