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close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainee guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
Open this folder and view contents Conducting the training program
Open this folder and view contents Presenting the sessions
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration

Total time 2 hours

Goals

- To receive each participants' species report,

- To have reports presented in a creative and interesting manner,

- To review research demonstration project.

Overview

In this cession, individual species reports are received by the group. A trainee who has taken this as a special project is in charge of the session. The special project and research demonstration are presented in this session.

Exercises

1. Species Reports

2. Research Demonstration

Materials

Individual species reports.

Exercise 1 Species Reports

Total time 1 hour 30 minutes

Overview

The trainee for whom this session is a special project introduces species reports. The trainee gives a brief overview of the guidelines. The trainees are asked to present their reports in an interesting and creative manner.

Procedures

Activities

1. The trainee reviews the task and details the guidelines used.

Time

5 minutes

Activities

2. The reports are introduced.

Time

1 hour 25 minutes

Trainer’s Note: It is hoped that you will not have to sit through 30 or 40 species presentations: keep a list of pertinent points since everyone needs to practice making presentations. There is some risk in doing this but the creativity of the trainees in a pilot program convinced us that as long as species reports were acknowledged, presentations were effective. Included at the end of this session are a few samples of the submitted species reports.

SPECIES REPORTS

Acacia mearnsii De Wild

Common Name: Black or tan wattle

Flower:

Fruit: Seed in pod

Seed: Dormancy broken by immersing in boiling water

Leaves: Dark green, feathery.

Bark: Black appearance

Shape: Solitary trees with spreading crowns; in crowded plantations, erect, slender; can grow to 25 meters

Habitat: Native to New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria. Cultivated in New Zealand, South, Central and East Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Central America and Indonesia. Cannot tolerate calcereous soils, yet can grow on poor soils. In native range, requires 500 - 700 mm of rainfall. Higher temperatures where introduced require more rainfall. Native to areas with cool winters. Growth slows with high temperatures. Moderately frost tolerant.

Uses : In native areas, grows to 1,100 meter altitude. Used as firewood and charcoal (often grown in small woodlots and by individual farmers). Foliage for green manure, bark for tanin extraction, pulp for wrapping paper. Also grown in dense stands to improve nitrogen levels of soil.

Disease/Insects: Not a serious problem unless rainfall is greater than 3,000 mm when tree is susceptible to fungal diseases and insect attacks.

Nursery Management/ Nursery Requirements:

Main Identification Characteristics: Natural regeneration. Direct seed growth, coppices poorly.

References

Firewood Crops: Shrubs and Tree Species for Energy Production. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1980. pp. 72 - 73.

Acacia albida

Common Names:

English - Gao

Arabic - Herraz

Wolof - Cad

French - Gao

Flower: Creamy white blossoms

Seed: Yellow pod a 8 - 15 cm long, 2 - 5 cm wide. Seeds dark brown, convex on one side concave on the other. Seeds ripen January - February (Upper Volta). Collect pods off the ground, will remain viable for a long time if kept in a dry place. Pretreatment: Soak in hot water or scarify hull.

Leaves: Grey-green, 3 - 10 pairs pinnules and 6 - 23 pairs of leaflets. Appear at start of rainy season and persist during all of the dry season.

Bark: Dull gray, fissured and scaly. Branchlets white, spines thick, white straight and points downward.

Description: Large thorny tree (10 - 20 meters) with large spreading crown. Timber rotation 30 - 40 years. Deep roots, flowers at 7 years, pods after 8 years.

Habitat: Dry savannahs throughout Western and Northern Africa to Egypt and East Africa. Annual rainfall 300-500mm. Generally below 1,200 m elevation. Grows on deep, sandy soils (similar to that in which millet grows). Will withstand heavier soils and occasional flooding.

Diseases: Seeds sometimes heavily infested with bruchid beetles. Watch for caterpillar and locust attacks which destroy young leaves. The seedlings are especially susceptable to insect damage. When collecting seeds, watch for small worm holes. Some pods may taint milk if fed to dairy cows.

Nursery Management: Direct seeding can be tried under good conditions. However, potting is recommended due to long tap root. Frequent root pruning is necessary. Seedlings reach heights of 10 - 15 cm in 14 - 16 weeks. Outplanting spacing is 10 X 10.

Uses: Good forage for areas with prolonged dry season. Good soil conservation tree (enriches soil).

Acacia raddiana

Common Names:

Chad Arabic - Salade

Bambara - Sayele

Djerma - Bissau

Fulani - Chillukl

Hausa - Kandill

Kunouri - Kandil

Synonyms: Acacia tortilla Hayne Acacia Fascientata Guill. and Perr.

General Description:

Medium tree 4 - 15 meters tall, sometimes with several trunks that spray upwards and outwards fountain-like, that support a flat-topped umbrella of feather foliage. Under extreme aridity, it becomes a small shrub, often barely one meter tall. Under heavy grazing it is frequently reduced to a number of trailing, seemingly unconnected branches radiating from a low sand mound. Its thorns are a distinguishing feature; there are two kinds, long, straight and white, and small brownish and hooked. The fragrant white flowers are borne singly or in clusters. Pids are controlled or spiraled like a coil spring.

Uses: As firewood, the dense, red heartwood of this species has high calorific value and makes superior firewood (and charcoal). The plant coppices well, so there is no need to replant trees after every harvest. Other uses include fence posts and for manufacturing small implements and articles. Fodder - Pods are produced prodifecially. They fall to the ground and are eaten by goats, sheep, wild her bivores and other domestic livestock. The thorny branches are used to pen cattle, goats, and sheep. Sand stabilization.

Habitat: Temperature grows well in hot, arid climates with maximum temperature as high as 50°C; grows where minimum temperatures are close to 0°C. Plants less than 2 years old are easily damaged by frost and require protection. Altitude; beat adapted to the lowlands. Rainfalls it is extremely drought resistant and can survive in climates with less than 100mm of rainfall and long, erratic dry seasons.

Acacia raddiana

Common Names:

Chad Arabic - Salade

Bambara - Sayele

Djerma - Bissau

Fulani Chillukl

Hausa - Kandill

Kunouri - Kandil

Synonyms: Acacia tortilla Hayne Acacia Fascientata Guill. and Perr.

General Description:

Medium tree 4 - 15 meters tall, sometimes with several trunks that spray upward a and outwards fountain-like, that support a flat-topped umbrella of feather foliage. Under extreme aridity, it becomes a small shrub, often barely one meter tall. Under heavy gracing it is frequently reduced to a number of trailing, seemingly unconnected branches radiating from a low sand mound. Its thorns are a distinguishing feature; there are two kinds, long, straight and white, and small brownish and hooked. The fragrant white flowers are borne singly or in clusters. Pids are controlled or "spiraled like a coil spring.

Uses: As firewood, the dense, red heartwood of this species has high calorific value and make a superior firewood (and charcoal). The plant coppices well, so there is no need to replant trees after every harvest. Other uses include fence posts and for manufacturing small implements and articles. As fodder pods are produced prodifecially. They fall to the ground and are eaten by goats, sheep, wild herbivores and other domestic livestock. The thorny branches are used to pen cattle, goats, and sheep. Sand stabilization.

Habitat: Temperature, grows well in hot, arid climates with maximum temperature as high as 50°C; grows where minimum temperatures are clone to 0°C. Plants less than 2 years old are easily damaged by frost and require protection. Altitudes best adapted to the lowlands. Rainfall' it is extremely drought resistant and can survive in climates with leas than 100mm of rainfall and long, erratic dry seasons.

Soil: The tree favors alkaline soils. It grows fairly well in shallow soils, less than 0.25 meters deep, though it develops long lateral roots that become a nuisance in nearby fields, paths and roadways. In shallow soil, the plant remains shrubby.

Establishment: Easily raised from seed and the seedlings can be established in plantations with less loss.

Seed Treatment: Seeds are dipped in hot water and soaked overnight to ensure quick uniform germination. Seed can also be treated to facilitate faster growth.

Pests and Diseases: Seed production is often severly reduced by insects (bruchids). Trees are susceptible to attacks by caterpillars, beetles, and blight diseases that infest other Mimosoideae in an area. Wild her bivores graze new shoots and young seedlings.

References

Firewood Crops: Shrubs and Tree Species for Energy Production. National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C. 1980.

Action/Peace Corps Program and Training Journal. Manual Series Number 5.

Reforestation in Arid Lands. Appropriate Technologies for Development

Other Names: Acacia adansonii; A. arabica var. nilotica; A. nilotica; A. scorpioides var. adstringens; A. scorpioides var. nilotica; Mimosa nilotica.

Common Names: Gonakier (F), Egyptian thorn, Red-heat, Kudupod.

Flower: Sweet-scented balls of yellow flowers 5/8" diameter, on stalks 1/2 - 1" long.

Seed: Sweet-smelling, gray-black, round but flattened. Ripen November - January. Pre-treatment; a) fresh seeds plant right away; b) older seeds - soak over night or feed pods to goats; seed is scarified and either collected from dung or goats are confined to an area.

Leaves: Alternate or opposite, bi-pinnate, 2 - 6" long, 3 - 8 pairs of side axes, 10 - 30 pairs narrow oblong leaflets 1/8 - 1/4" long. Paired whitish spines at leaf base 1/2 - 1(1/2)" long.

Bark: Very dark, almost black, fissured, with long white or grey spines.

Shape: Height determined by site - may be 3 - 20 meters tall. Umbrella shaped crown or flattish.

Habitat: 500 meters altitude. May be found near water or moist soils, in areas of periodic flooding (Acacia scorpioides var. nilotica) or in drier highlands (Acacia scorpioides var. adstringens). Soils may be poor to alluvium.

Use: Live fences, windbreaks, fodder (leaves and pods), tanning material (pod & bark), honey, carving, gum arable.

Disease/Insects: Wood borers, bruchid beetles attack seeds in pods, pathogenic fungi.

Nursery Management Needs:

Rarely use seedlings. Direct seed in pots ready in 14 - 18 weeks. Direct seeding common but have poor results due to browsing, low soil moisture, weeds.

Nursery Requirements: Heavy soil, lots of water.

Natural Regeneration: Seeds, sprouting.

Four Identifying Characteristics:

1. Spines at leaf base,

2. Bipinnate feathery leaves,

3. Balls of yellow flowers,

4. Narrow whitish grey pods.

References

Firewood Crops: Shrubs and Tree Species for Energy Production. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C. 1980.

Reforestation in Arid Lands. Fred Weber. Action/Peace Corps Programming & Training Journal Manual. Series 5.

Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Elbert L. Wadsworth. 2nd Volume. Forest Service - United States Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 449. 1974.

Pinus radiata D. Don

Common Names:

Monterey Pine

Insignis Pine

Flower: Flowers in late winter or early spring, monoecious -- male and female strobili borne separately.

Fruiting

Body: Cones mature in autumn of second season: 3 - 7 cones on main stem or branches size varies -- young trees bear larger cones than older trees brown color.

Seeds: One cone produces 120 to 200 seeds viability between 70 and 80% - regardless of size: pretreatment by cold stratification increases rate and amount of germination (33 - 41°F for 35 - 40 days): temperature

of 86°F during the day and 68°F at night best for germination; seeds often released from cone after fire or when exposed to hot, dry winds sooner than the average dispersal which may take between 2 and 6 years.

Leaves: Two-needled

Bark: Fissured

Shape: In natural stands, reaches height of 70 to 110 feet, 2 - 3 feet in diameter; often taller in introduced areas, roots shallow (not deeper than 2 feet) and wide spreading. Not self-pruning.

Habitat: Three native stands along California coast and one native stand on Guadaloupe Island off the coast of California. Introduced to Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Soils are coarse, deep sandy loams, acidic, permeable and well drained. Rainfall required varies with elevation, minimum of 5.68 inches to a maximum of 50.41 inches; most moisture should occur between December and March or the coolest months with humid, foggy summers. Temperature range is 48° - 52°F in January, 60°-64°F in July. Gentle moderate slopes at an altitude from 0 to 1,000 feet (500 feet is best) hot and dry exposures not favorable.

Uses: Used for timber, shelterbelts, and environmental forestry.

Disease/Insects: Seventy different pathogens found on North American stand et 86 pathogens on exotics -- 44% are saprophytes, 31% wound parasites, 10% obligate parasites, 15% not classified; diseases affects stem, root, foliage.

Nursery Management Requirements:

Season for sowing is spring at a depth of 1/8 - 3/4"; peat moss 1/2 - 1/4" deep often used, outplanting after a year.

Main Identification Characteristic: Similar to Knobcone pine (Pinus attenuata)

Natural Regeneration: No sprouting in native stands; easily established after fire or clear-cut.

References

Silvics of Forest Trees in the United States. Fowells, H.A., US Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C. 1965. pp. 390 - 397.

Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Schopmeyer, C.S., US Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C. 1974. pp. 598 - 563.

Exercise 2 Research Demonstration

Total time 30 minutes

Overview

The trainee for whom this session is a special project introduces the research demonstration. The trainee gives a brief overview of the guidelines which were used and proceeds in his/her demonstration.

Procedures

Activities

1. The trainee reviews the task and guidelines used. He/she proceeds to explain the demonstration.

Time

30 minutes

Trainer’s Note: The following is a basic outline prepared by the trainees during the pilot test. It is included in this manual as an example of what the Volunteer should expect.

RESEARCH DEMONSTRATION

[Project supplement to Peace Corps Volunteer Training Manual]

The purpose of this supplement is to illustrate benefits to be derived from the use of a specific research project in a Volunteer's work. More specifically, how can the Volunteer use a particular experiment designed by him/her to solve some of the problems they may face in the technical aspect of their work as foresters .

Much of our work as Peace Corps Foresters will involve the implementation of a particular system (village tree nursery, vegetable garden, community agro-forestry project, etc.) in our community. Whatever it may be, the Volunteer will be confronted by any number of unforeseen technical pitfalls in his/her work. By performing a simple, yet basic experiment to try to solve a particular problem or to test a particular component of the system, certain questions may be answered that were otherwise unanswerable.

How can the Peace Corps Volunteer set-up an experiment to solve a technical problem? our first step is basically to define the problem and then develop a coherent hypothesis to enable us to start solving it. One of your beet tools for coming up with a clear hypothesis is a complete definition of the technical problem. How do we test this hypothesis once it is made? Design an experiment or test to determine the validity of your hypothesis. This test may include a control to test experimental components against natural conditions or parallel comparisons of different effects. Remember, as a PCV researcher, resources are limited so keep your experimental design simple and basic.

Once the experiment is designed and then set-up, your next step is to implement it. Carrying out the experiment may involve actual implementation within your work. A good example might be a test of soil sterility in your area by testing the soil within the community tree nursery in which you are working. Another example would be to test for insect damage in your vegetable garden using different plant seedlings from your cold-frame surplus. The possibilities are only limited by the available resources and the feasibility of the experiment within the context of your project.

The experiment/test can be done outside the context of your work, but having it integrated within your own project can aid you greatly in relating the specific problem to your work. An important point to keep in mind is retesting. If time is not a crucial factor in solving your problem, carrying out the experiment/test more than once can help to establish the validity of your experimental results. If a number of trials are performed and consistent results obtained, you know that a specific component you are testing actually acts in that particular manner when subjected to standards within your test.

After the experimental results are obtained and verified through retesting, you can then draw preliminary conclusions based upon your results These conclusions may or may not answer your original hypothesis, and in some cases may even ask more questions than they answer In this cave you may want to perform another experiment/teat of a similar but slightly different nature Your options at this point are experiment specific and depend upon the particular situation Was the experiment able to confirm the hypothesis or reject it? Did the experiment confirm or deny already established information? What new questions did the experimental results raise?

If the experiment was able to solve your original problem, you have accomplished your objective If it did not, do not get discouraged. Possibly an improvement in your experimental design can act to more clearly incorporate a teat of the hypothesis. Retesting or performing the experiment again may be another option to consider at this point Further research is more than likely the path one will take at this point Perform another experiment to test other hypotheses you may have related to the problem

I have designed and carried out a very simple experiment to give you an idea of the option of implementing an experiment/test to help answer technical problems you may face in your work.

Problem

In setting up the community tree nursery, no one in your area is sure what soil typo to use for growing a tree species that is similar yet slightly different from the indigenous species. (The people of the community wish to plant this species since it is resistant to a fungal disease that has wiped out the indigenous tree species. )

Step 1 - Define the Problem

What soil typo do you use in the nursery that best works for the plant? In this cave the plant needs a soil that has a strong water holding capacity

Stop 2 - Develop a Hypothesis

A wolf mixed soil containing mineral matter, organic matter, and good aeration will give the best water holding capacity (Elements: clay, organic matter, sand. )

Step 3 - Design an Experiment to Test the Hypothesis

In this case, soil water holding capacity wee tested through a rather simple procedure for testing water retention in a variety of soils

Step 4 - Implement the Experiment

Different soil types were each plated in a similar size container (46 fl. oz. cans) and weighed. Prior to filling with sail, holes were punched in the bottom of the soil cans for water drainage. Different soil types were then placed in each can and the soil was saturated with water. Time for water drainage through each can was measured and the weight of each can was taken again after saturation with water. The percent of water retained by each soil type was calculated in contrast to the original eight of the soil sample. Five different soil types were tested including : sand, loam, garden mixture (containing organic matter), clay, and a mixture of clay, sand, organic matter and dirt. Without detailing the individual results for each sample, the mixture sample (clay, sand, organic matter and dirt) turned out to be the best for water retention. While the clay had a great water holding capacity, it presented inherent drawbacks (infiltration into clay was very slow). The sand mixture turned out to e the poorest for water retention.

Step 5 - Draw Conclusions Based on Results Obtained

In this case, we can conclude that the evenly mixed soil sample is best for planting tree seedlings requiring good water retention properties in your nursery.

Not all of your problems will be as simple and the experiment you design to test a particular hypothesis may be more complex with multiple components, a control, and other factors. The pain to keep in mind is that experimentation is a definite tool one can use to solve technical problems in your work. One point not mentioned previously is the importance of keeping accurate records of experimental data and observations made during the five research steps.

In conclusion, one may consider their entire work as a PCV as a sort of experiment in itself. The work may not seem experimental but the results can be thought of in the light of ongoing research in the country of PCV service.