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close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainee guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
Open this folder and view contents Conducting the training program
Open this folder and view contents Presenting the sessions
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports

Total time 3 to 4 hours

Goals

- For the trainees to present the agro-forestry programs on which they have worked in small groups,

- Through the utilization of data collected, extension skills required and knowledge of community, the trainees make recommendations for agro-forestry programs.

Overview

This session helps the trainees exhibit new learnings, skills, and techniques. The trainees use creativity and organizational skills.

Exercise

1. Trainees' Presentations

Materials

Trainees' projects

Exorcise 1 Trainees' Presentations

Total time 3 - 4 hours

Procedures

Activities

1. The trainee for whom this session is a special project introduces the session, gives an overview of the projects and introduces the groups.

Examples of agro-forestry reports are on the following pages.


Figure 32

GOAGOA

Development Project for Oracle, Arizona

Agro-forestry is a land management system that aims to optimize available resources for a higher total, more diversified, sustainable production than is possible with other forms of land use. In a silvo-pastoral system, land is managed for the production of wood as well as for the rearing of domesticated animals. Other applicable agro-forestry systems include agri-silviculture, agro-silvo-pastoral, and the multipurpose system, all of which may possibly be applied to the Oracle area.

The ecological environment of the Oracle, Arizona area includes many limiting factors which may inhibit the selection of species possibilities for agro-forestry. The soil type is shale to bedrock. The bedrock consists mainly of granite. The soils are shallow and rocky. North of Oracle the soils are deeper due to the alluvial fan created by the river. Precipitation falls predominantly in the form of short, violent rainstorms, called monsoons which occur from July - September. Average rainfall is 18" - 19" per year. Soft gentle rain falls from March to May. Occasional winter storms which include snow and sleet fall in January and February. The temperature range is from 34°F in the winter to 91°F in the summer. Slope is variable, from nearly level (0-1%) to very steep (80-90%) and varies locally. Elevation is from 3,500 to 4,500 feet.

Current agricultural practices in the Oracle area are limited to cattle grazing and small home gardens. Because the climate and soil cannot support much vegetation, 80 - 120 acres of range land per year are required to support one cow/calf unit.

Water supply, although available, is quite expensive. Therefore, home gardens are often uneconomical, yet rather common in Oracle. The warm temperatures and well-drained soil contribute to high yields and fast growth of vegetables and other garden crops.

Factors affecting the socio-economic environment of the Oracle area i.e., increasing unemployment due to mining layoffs, limited agricultural potential, and the relatively high cost of living, make Oracle a desirable place for implementation of land intensive agro-forestry. The Goagoa silvo-pastoral system of incorporating the existing range resources and the slow development of an intensive land-use technique of fodder with livestock is basically geared toward the industrious type of individual with diverse side interest. The lack of many rich landowners and the economic unfeasibility of large scale beef grazing has geared the goals of Goagoa to fit the needs of the community.

Specifically, the silvo-pastoral system outlined includes the following species (see table 7). These are distributed according to the outlined plan (see fig. 32). Water is directed to the olive trees through a water catchment system which also includes a supplementary irrigation system. Contour catchment is the type of catchment, and polyvinyl chloride pipes with holes at each tree site is the method of irrigation. If additional watering of Oak, Acacia or grass is indicated, a sprinkler system may be added. To keep costs low, use of grey water is suggested. Goat grazing is permitted in all areas once the trees and browse have reached correct maturity. Tethering is the type of goat restraint recommended since it is the least costly and most effective for controlled browsing and rotation.

Several extension practices will be available. The Goagoa project will be presented, and alternatives will be suggested. The goal of this project is to adapt it to the people of Oracle. The extension agents from the University of Arizona will continue to work as a consulting team in establishing flexible silvo-pastoral systems. A quarterly newsletter will be available to those interested. Information concerning the Oracle Goagoa project as well as current news in the agro-forestry world will be presented in this free periodical. Also, the University of Arizona's extensionists encourage participation in county and state fairs. Booths will display the latest innovations and be manned by a well-informed staff who will answer any questions pertaining to Goagoa or agro-forestry.

FODDER AND BROWSE SPECIES

Acacia greggii, catclaw, is a palatable browse and fodder plant for goats. Like most legumes A. greggii will enrich the soil with nitrogen. In native stands it usually grows as a rounded shrub. When isolated, however, it is a low branching tree five - eight meters tall. This species is indigenous to the Oracle area, found mainly in washes and on rocky hillsides. The foliage withstands all but the severest winters. Leaves will remain on the plant for several weeks after a severe frost, or even until the commencement of spring growth.

Atriplex canescens, four-winged saltbush, is a perennial, green shrub about two and a half meters tall at maturity. A native North American species, it survives in saline, heavily textured soils. Spring and fall rains and temperatures as low as -10°C to -12°C are common climatic factors to which A. canescens is adapted. Palatable to livestock, it is browsed most in summer and fall when no other green vegetation remains. Twelve percent of the dry matter is digestible protein, making this species a favorable fodder crop.

Quercus turbinella, scrub oak, is an excellent fuelwood species native to the southern Arizona region. The plant grows as a branching shrub or small tree one to five meters tall. Livestock often browse on Q. turbinella, and acorns serve as good fodder. Another advantage is the high natural regeneration rate.

GRASS, FODDER AND HOBBY SPECIES

Eragrostis lehmanniana, Nees., Lehmann lovegrass, Perennial culms finally prostrate, 30 - 80 cm. It was introduced from Africa, is drought-resistant and proving effective in erosion control. It is well established in Arizona with local distributors and is relatively cheap with good germination and establishment percentages. Irrigation is not necessarily needed and therefore it provides the cheapest feed for livestock. It is a principal means of restoring soils worn out by cropping along with its characteristic to maintain or increase nutrient levels.

Olea Europaea L., olive tree. The broad-leaved evergreen tree reaches a height of 10 - 60 feet. It is drought resistant and tolerant of poorly aerated soils. It is a well balanced, nutritional feed which can be browsed at two years of age, but it is better to wait four to five years. It produces an annual crop of olives which are harvested during October to December. Hundreds of varieties are known and are mainly cultivated for-the production of commercial olives and olive oil. An enjoyable hobby is to can olives to one's own taste. This tree species lives to a ripe old age.

SMALL LIVESTOCK

Goats: The history of goat raising in the Oracle area dates back to World War II and earlier. At that time there were two or three large bands of goats on the open range which was owned by large landowners. As the climate became hotter and drier, the large land masses were broken down and cattle grazing took over. We feel that small landowners can effectively and economically raise a few goats on one or two acres of land with little initial investment. This representative acre plot, which does not necessarily have to be exactly the same as ours, can support two to three goats year round.

Since goats will eat almost anything, but prefer fortes to grass, this area provides a wide variety of species for forage. As previously mentioned, five new species are being introduced for feed. Goats will also feed on existing species such as mesquite and prickly pear cactus. A daily supply of good water is needed. This will be provided by means of a trough at the top of our plot (see diagram on following page).

Fencing can be used to keep goats contained, but to keep costs down, tethers can be used. Each tether should allow the goat 20 yards of freedom. Tethering helps to control the area of browsing which is especially important at the initial stages of plant establishment.

The gestation period of a goat is five months. Two kids are normally born but a nanny can have up to four. The kids can be sold for added revenue.

Mohair goats are highly prized for their wool which can be sold to speciality shops that spin their own yarn or market the wool. Various methods of dyeing wool naturally can be implemented. Goat meat can be eaten also.

The price range for purebred mohair goat is $60 - $75 per goat. A cross between a Spanish goat and a purebred is hardier and costs between $10 - $15 per goat. The wool, however, is less valuable. It is recommended that there be one billy and two nannies per acre of land.

Since this plan is flexible to the needs of the landowner, many different small livestock can be introduced. Horses can browse as a diet supplement but cannot be sustained on one acre. Chickens and/or exotic bird species, sheep and llamas are alternative small livestock. The list can be expanded to include species desired by the landowner.

BENEFITS OF GOAGOA

- Low initial investment

- Income through fuel/wood production

- Small scale olive production

- Income from livestock products

- Protection from soil erosion

- Nutrient enrichment of soil

- Optimal water use and conservation

- Recreation and hobby activities

SUMMARY

Goagoa is a silvo-pastoral program involving Goats, Olives, Acacia, Grass, Oak and Atriplex. Agro-forestry is a land management system that aims to optimize available resources for a higher total, more diversified, more sustainable production than is possible with other forms of land use. In a silvo-pastoral system, land is managed for the production of wood as well as for the rearing of domesticated animals.

AGRI-SILVA CULTURE PROPOSALS

For Oracle, Arizona

I. INTRODUCTION

Due to the increasing problem of water availability and cost, the raising of home gardens and backyard orchards in Oracle, Arizona has become less feasible. Produce of these types is important to the economy of many households in Oracle. This research presents a possible program for backyard family gardens as well as an alternative to this type of conventional gardening system.

Practices of agro-forestry are believed to be a possible solution to this problem. Agro-forestry is not a new concept, it has been practiced for centuries by various peoples. Due to contemporary population explosions, and reduced availability of arable land, however, the practice has recently become more accepted as a management practice.

Agro-forestry can be defined as the practice of integrated land use and is particularly suited for fragile environments or degraded environmental situations where imports are restricted by economic necessity. It is a system that combines practices of agriculture and forest products and at the same time improves the specific environmental area. By employing the major concepts of consistent ground cover for soil stability, water retention, and high organic matter, the agro-forestry system helps aleviate degradation of delicate ecosystems.

The agro-forestry practices discussed here deal with the concurrent production of agriculture crops (including tree crops) with forest crops for the town of Oracle, Arizona. When considering the types of crops to be employed in this system, emphasis should be directed at the following aspects of the study site: ecological environment, present and potential agriculture practices and the socio-economic environment. After analysis of these factors, major considerations major consideration should be given to the availablity and cost of water and climatic conditions.

Oracle's amenities are threefold: it offers a rural lifestyle, easy access to the mountains, and a more temperate climate than Tuscon. People, however, are not drawn here by employment; services are minimal or non-existent, and there are living inconveniences (lack of zoning, distance from Tucson).

The greatest factor which restricts Oracle's growth is water. During the past fifteen years the water table has dropped approximately one foot per year. Private wells do exist, however in dry periods, these must be supplemented by the Arizona Water Company. Since water is pumped from Oracle Junction, ten miles east of Oracle, its coat is prohibitive and is expected to keep rising.

Due to this situation, a community park/garden system is proposed. Involved in the project is the establishment of a park in centrally located area of town. Agro-forestry techniques will be used in the planting of family gardens, fruit and nut trees, and vine fruits. Establishment of a well and a water holding tank at the site are essential parts of the project. Also present at the park will be a hot house, picnic tables and barbecue pits.

A possible program for backyard family gardens is also presented in this paper. This program outlines agro-forestry practices and water conservation measures which may be incorporated in residential situations.

II. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Oracle's population is varied. It is a mixture of miners, ranch workers, business and service employees, retirees, people who work in Tuscon, artisans, and other self-employed workers. There have been no accurate demographic statistics taken. In 1980, however, its population was believed to be between four and five thousand people.

Population statistics have not been kept in Oracle due to its status as an unincorporated community. Residents have strongly resisted incorporation each time the issue has been raised. The people believe that incorporation would mean higher taxes, regulations, another level of government, and more red tape. The people also reject incorporation because they want their autonomy and less government interference. Oracle is administered by the county which provides police and fire protection and any needed social services.

Residents believe that Oracle will grow in the future, but that growth will be slow due to the interest rates for home loans and the scarcity of water. Because the town is unincorporated and no large industries exist other than nearby mining, people hope that the economy of the overall county will help maintain Oracle as a small, rural community.

III. ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

Oracle is on the edge of two distinct ecosystems. To the north, east and west, there are desert grasslands; oak woodlands dominate southward. Throughout the general area, overgrazing and the lowering of the water table has brought in mesquite and other xerophytic vegetation.

The desert grasslands of north Oracle is different in soil, topography and plant species than other nearby areas. Dissected alluvium is abundant through the terrain with the soil much deeper than that of the adjacent foothills. Soils along the washes are deep, sandy to gravelly, unconsolidated material.

One type of ecosystem that extends across all environmental zones is the viparian. Plants here are of the winter deciduous type and are restricted to drainage ways. These plants were once abundant but the lowering of the water table has caused them to die out.

Soils in the foothills around Oracle have evolved from granite bedrock. Topsoil is often thin due to steep elopes and the close proximity of the bedrock. Due to this, once vegetation is eliminated, any unconsolidated material is quickly washed away. It may be years before plants can be re-established. The bedrock is often fractured with many of the cracks and fissures holding small amounts of water. This has allowed evergreen oaks to become dominant climax species of the area.

These aspects of shallow soils and slope have a bearing on how, where and what kind of development can occur in the area. Most soils are not conducive to septic tanks, excavations, basements, sanitary landfills and irrigation.

The area averages 10" - 20" of annual precipitation. The majority occurs as intense thunderstorms from July to October and lighter rains of longer duration from December to April. It is not uncommon to see snow, sleet or hail during the winter. Temperature range is from an average high of 90°F in July to and average low of 34°F in January.

Wildlife in the area is limited to small species such as jack rabbits, squirrels, and kangaroo rats. The bird population is more diverse, ranging from wrens to hawks. In the mountains and foothills south of Oracle the wildlife has more variety.

IV. COMMUNITY PARK/GARDEN

The main proposal for Oracle is for a community park and garden. It would be developed with the concept of agri-silviculture systems in mind. We believe that our plan is workable and profitable for the inhabitants of Oracle.

In order for the project to succeed, several stumbling blocks will have to be resolved. The first of these is funding. This we hope could be solved with a community development grant from either the state or federal level. The other problem's solution hinges on the solution of the fires one. This funding is necessary to initiate the project. It should cover the irrigation system, fencing costs, and layout and planting of the trees.

A reliable water source is necessary for the project to succeed. Few people in town can presently afford the watering coats for a large garden of their own. Our watering system will rely upon a well or holding tank systems. Up to 35 gallons per minute can be pumped from the well legally. A 100,000 gallon holding tank will hold the water after it is pumped and before it is used. Our generous estimate calculated that 50,000 gallons of water each day is needed. This includes the plots, the grassy areas, and the fruit trees. Distribution of the water will be from a faucet at each set of plots.

Another problem is the location of a suitable piece of land that is easily accessible from town. Not only will it have to be quite large (3.9 acres) but the soil should also be tillable.

A map of the plan itself is attached. We designed a dual purpose park. Not only will people be able to come here for picnics and to relax in the shade, but they would also be able to come here after work and on weekends to care for their own gardens. Presently, many people cannot afford gardens due to the high cost of watering.

The plan itself incorporates agri-silvicultural practices. There are 104 plots. Fruit and nut trees will be scattered throughout and between the plots and completely encircle the whole area. These will provide fruits and nuts at first, and later firewood when they grow old. The trees will also provide shade, prevent erosion, act as windbreaks, and slow evaporation rates from the garden. Trees native to the area or ones that are known to do well were chosen for the project.

In order to fund the project after the initial costs, a fee of $10/season, per plot will be charged. This money will go toward maintenance and a part-time groundskeeper/caretaker. This person will receive a fee-free plot. They will assign plots, trees (and the produce from them) and see that the grounds are maintained.

A source of possible organic matter to improve the soil is the sewage treatment plant in town. There is a large stockpile of waste that could be used if it tests clean.

V. PRIVATE/RESIDENTIAL GARDENS

A secondary proposal for Oracle concerns information regarding backyard family gardens. This practice is not new to the community, but due to water availability, its practice has been on the decline. It is believed that a review of the present and potential crops grown in the area would be an aid to families interested in backyard gardening. Also, various methods of water conservation are outlined.

Plants reported to be grown locally include: (Table 7)

Almonds

Apples

Apricots

Beans

Black walnuts

Boysenberry

Canteloupe

Cherry

Corn

Cucumbers

Eggplant

Fig

Grapefruit

Lettuce

Manzanita

Mulberry

Oak

Okra

Olive

Orange

Peaches

Peanuts

Pecan

Pepper plant

Pepper tree

Pinon nut

Pomegranate

Potatoe

Squash

Strawberry

Tangerine

Tomato

Watermelons Pears

Plants that would be most successful in individual gardens includes

Beans

Canteloupe

Grapefruit

Okra

Pepper plant

Squash

Tomato

Plants chosen as the most successful were considered adaptable to the locals

1. Climatic conditions of water and temperature,

2. Edaphic factors of soil texture and nutrient composition,

3. Need for production of a popular product at a fairly low investment.

Some plants were not as desirable as others due to the following requirements :

1. Lower temperatures - apricots, lettuce, potato, strawberries.

2. Light soil - cucumbers, oranges, peanuts, peaches, watermelons.

3. No frost - almonds, apricots, cucumbers, fig, grapefuits, peaches.

4. Heavy fertilizing - cherry, corn, olive, oranges, strawberries.

5. Heavy watering - corn, cucumber, potatoes, peaches, strawberries, watermelon.

6. Tender care - apricots, boysenberry, corn.

7. Unpopular fruit - manzanita, olive, pinon, acorns.

8. Long-term investment - almonds, boysenberry, figs, pears, apples and other fruit trees.

9. Insect problems - corn, eggplant.

Of these less hardy plants, most could probably be grown without financial loss if given proper care. Ways of successfully growing these may include;

1. Growing cool climate plants only during fall and winter months,

2. Providing sufficient water/irrigation when necessary,

3. Providing sufficient fertilizers,

4. Controlling insects.

Several tree species can be grown well in the Oracle climate if a person is willing to make a long-term investment and wait for a return.

In general, plants can be raised more successfully and economically by implemeting progressive growing techniques. These include:

1. Intercropping of nitrogen-fixers with plants requiring higher nitrogen levels,

2. Using strong-stemmed plants as physical support for climbing vine plants,

3. Using crop rotation to avoid soil nutrient depletion,

4. Creating a compost heap for the provision of cheap and effective fertilizer,

5. Growing plants which are subject to desiccation under shade trees that can tolerate long hours of sunlight,

6. Using water catchment techniques and gray-water to save on water costs.

Grey-water is water that has been used for household needs such as washing. It may be then employed on gardens and is an inexpensive water source. The city of Oracle utilizes gray-water from the sewage treatment plant to water the local football field (the sludge removed is sold for compost after two to three year ). Residents who are not connected to the sewage system may therefore use gray-water from their homes in their gardens. When such water is employed, biodegradable detergents should be used for washing so that the garden is not contaminated. This source of water is in common use in Oracle presently.

Another inexpensive source of water is through water-catchment systems. These are fairly easy to construct.

Examples of some types of water-catchment systems are:

1. Harnessing water run-off from household roofs,

2. Using "V"-catchment resevoirs around trees on slopes,

3. Contour type catchment systems can be employed on slopes where crops or trees are planted.

Implementing one or more of these systems could provide substantial savings on irrigation costs.


Figure 33 : Oracle community gardens and fruit trees

VI. EXTENSION WORK

The roles of an extensionist in these proposals are two-folds first, to promote the implementation of the community park/garden system and second, to play an advisory role, acting as an information center for families planning gardens. Key to the success of such a program in Oracle is the extensionist's understanding of the cultural systems inherent to the community.

In order to initiate the community park/garden, the extensionist should be fully aware of potential leaders and groups within the community who might support the project. Meetings should be arranged with such clubs, societies and community leaders and the idea for the park/garden system should be presented and discussed. At these meetings, the extensionist must identify those willing to pursue the proposal further and arrange a second meeting with those leaders.

At the second meeting the extensionist should allow these local people to take the leadership and organizational roles: he/she takes the role of an advisor. The extensionist should urge further discussion of the plan and the incorporation of any desired alterations.

From this point, the extensionist's main duties would be to monitor the progress of the project, provide motivation when it is necessary, and make the leaders aware of what they have accomplished. The extensionist must insure that the project is kept in proper perspective. If things go well, the leaders will establish appropriate contacts with state officials, apply for and receive a community development grant, arrange for the purchase of necessary materials and the manpower needed for the construction of the project (possibly employing the youth of the community through established programs run by the tri-community behavioral health center).

The extensionist should then meet once a year with the leaders to evaluate the success of the community garden/park.

In order to provide information on improved technologies for family gardens, the extensionist would want to make his/her expertise as readily available as possible. There are two approaches that the extensionist should take: have public meetings and make visits to individual households. Such work needs to be done once a year. The best time to do this extension work is in the early spring before the planting season begins.

In order for the extension meetings to be successful, they need to be extensively publicized. Announcements should be placed in local newspapers, on local radio stations and posters should be placed in highly visible locations around Oracle. At the meeting, appropriate technologies for lowering the cost of home gardening, while increasing benefits, should be discussed.

In addition to a meeting, the extensionist should set aside one month during the pre-planting season when he can visit households for evaluating individual home sites for appropriate garden technologies. The extensionist's availability for this work should also be well publicized. Visits should be made by request with appointments arranged over the telephone.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Good extension work is paramount to the success of the projects outlined in this proposal. The extensionist must particularly insure that the people are involved and that a strong community development grant proposal is written.

These proposals have the potential for enhancing the feasibility of family gardens in oracle. Households in the community could profit from their implementation. In addition, the community park/garden has the potential to increase community interaction - to "bring the people together".

MULTI-PURPOSE AGRO-FORESTRY SYSTEMS

In most marginal and fragile ecosystems around the world, many agricultural land-use systems have been deemed inappropriate or implemented in such a way that it results in the degradation of the ecosystem. Where these systems of land-use are not accepted, the decision is made because inputs, such as water, are often limited due to economic restraints. Agro-forestry is one system of land-use that combines the practices of agriculture and forestry. This system can provide food and water without causing deterioration of the ecosystem or without requiring excessive input a such as machinery, pesticides, and fertilizers. Multi-purpose agro-forestry systems have the advantage of being low input systems, providing multiple products, preventing soil and water loss, providing supplementary income and recycling nutrients. These specific advantages are closely related to the surroundings in which a system is incorporated.

An agro-forestry land system is very dependent upon the ecological environment of the area of consideration. Factors that need to be addressed are the climate, general geography and elements of limitation of the region. The climatic conditions in the Oracle area include rainfall of roughly 10 - 20 inches annually. This precipitation is mainly concentrated during two periods of the year. April and May are the months in which the first rains of the season occur, while July through September comprise the second period of heavy rainfall. Available water in the form of snowfall la minimal, since little snow falls in that area. Frost can occur in Oracle around January, but usually only annual plants are damaged. Temperatures can vary greatly in the desert ecosystem. High temperatures average 90°F and low temperatures average 34°F. Some days in the summer months the temperature can reach as high as 120°F, while in the winter, lows of 15°F are recorded.

Oracle la located at an elevation of approximately 3,900 feet above sea level. The geography of this desert region is such that vegetation need a to be drought resistent. Soils in the area are underdeveloped granitic, sandstone, and caliche type formations. The parent material la close to the surface. The bedrock slopes from the mountains into Oracle. Therefore, the topsoils are very thin and soils along the washes are unconsolidated A multi-purpose agro-forestry system must consider the limiting factors apparent to the area. Water availability, make-up of soils, and temperature fluctuations will disallow certain tree species or crops to be incorporated into the management system. Local agricultural techniques and community practices need to be observed.

Successful agro-forestry systems moat recognize the current agricultural practices and realize the potential possibilities. Several large old family ranches exist in Oracle in which cattle, horses, and chickens are raised. Many people have either attempted or maintained a garden around their home. Some Oraclites have planted native ornamental tree species or have introduced species into the area. The commercial potential for intensive agricultural practices is extremely low, due to limiting factors. Residential areas or small landowners can be self-sustained by using the proper agro-forestry system. The system can help to remedy certain community inconveniences such an higher food costs and outside firewood collection. These factors and other relevant criteria are involved in the Oracle economic dilemma.

Socio-economic conditions, relating to the area in which Oracle is located, significantly reduce the alternatives for improvements. The fact that most of the town relies upon the mining industry creates a substantial problem. Lack of a Cost effective market has caused the industry to start a shutdown of production. Therefore, Oraclites have reduced work hours and less of an annual income. Another major factor resulting in leas useable income la availability of water. Outside distributors and privately owned wells provide the only source of water in the area. Most residents in Oracle have either bought their existing land area or are in the process of doing so. An interest in agro-forestry could propose a viable alternative to harsh economic woes. With low input, the amount of time people spend to establish a multipurpose system would be offset by future gains. By integrating the most efficient system of agro-forestry, the local economy could receive an essential uplift.

An agro-forestry system best suited for the Oracle area is a multipurpose forest tree production system. The benefits of this system include the following:

- fruit and nuts

- shade

- mulch

- firewood

- ornamentals

- Christmas trees

- windbreaks

- erosion control

- supplemental income

Components of this system are suited to an average residential lot of one--fifth acre. The suitable species to be incorporated fall into several categories: large long-lived trees (pecans, mulberry), small short-lived trees (fruit species), annual crops to protect seedlings (corn, beans), shade and ornamental trees (green ash, Douglas fir), Christmas and windbreak species (Colorado blue and Engelman spruce), and firewood trees (fruit species). Although water presents a limitation due to its high cost and scarcity, solutions are attainable. Drip irrigation, catchments, and gray-water provide efficient alternatives to the problem.

The system itself consists of three major processes: the initial planting, middle, and final stages. In the initial planting, trees are laid out in an appropriate network with a drip irrigation system. Establishment of annual crops for a few years will provide shading for seedlings. First harvesting of Christmas trees and productive fruit trees distinguish the middle stage. In this six to nine year old stage, some nut trees have reached production, but not maturity and the canopy is too closed for annual crops. Mature trees continue to close the canopy at 25 - 30 years: fruit trees have been removed due to exhausted production and continued planting and growth of Christmas and windbreak trees occurs at this period of the final stage. Further involvement of this multi-purpose tree production system can be enhanced by existing resource potential.

Efforts to establish a proper agro-forestry system should be done in conjunction with knowledgeable extensionists. The University of Arizona and county officials are available for conducting seminars to inform the interested public. Certain people in the area with previous experience, notably Mr. Reynolds and Mr. McKinley, could provide an excellent opportunity to initiate ideas and influence a successful program. All in all, a continued effort on the part of the citizenry of Oracle could ease the economic burden that has been handed down to them. By using an agro-forestry system, the people would provide for themselves and protect the fragile ecosystem in which they live.