| Forestry training manual for the Africa region |
Total time 3 hours 30 minutes
- To acquaint the trainees with fruit tree care and grafting techniques.
Foresters are often expected to be experts in all trees including fruit trees. As it is important to be knowledgeable on fruit tree culture, this session is devoted to grafting and fruit trees.
1. Fruit Trees and Grafting Practice
Fruit trees for pruning, grafting, sharp knife, sharpening stone, plastic tape (grafting tape), bees wax.
Exercise 1 Fruit Trees and Grafting Practice
Total time 3 hours 30 minutes
In this exercise the trainees learn about fruit trees and fruit tree reproduction.
1. The trainer gives the following lecture on fruit trees.
3 hours 30 minutes
FRUIT TREES AND FORESTRY
Grafting and Fruit Trees
Foresters are often expected to be experts in all kinds of trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of some of the basics of fruit tree culture.
I. Differences between forestry for wood products and for fruits
A. Fruit trees are short term, usually with an annual production cycle:
B. They require intensive cultural practices; fertilization, pruning, grafting, disease and pest control,
C. In summary, fruit trees are domesticated trees needing a series of special treatments.
II. Critical cultural practices in detail
1. Specific systems vary according to the crop,
2. Some basic rules are generally valid:
a. There should be a space for every branch and a branch for every space.
b. Watch the timing - Prune generally during the lowest growth period (dormancy) of the tree.
c. Prune with clean cuts so that the tree can heal with no projecting stumps so that rain will collect in the cut.
1. What is grafting?
a. Grafting is the union of the cambium layers of a parent tree (stock) and a desired variety (scion) in such a way that the two form a solid, growing unit.
b. The continued growth from the scion is true to the scion's characteristics and is not a combination of stock and scion.
c. It is essential to protect grafts of all types with wax and/or by wrapping to prevent drying or mechanical damage.
2. Why graft?
A. Graft to achieve the desired variety of fruit with root stock adapted to local conditions,
B. Graft to gain time by multiplying a desired variety faster than plants from seeds,
C. Graft to assure genetic purity,
D. Graft to have several varieties on one tree for pollination purposes,
E. Graft for repair purposes it renews an old tree or repairs girdled trunks from rodents or mechanical damage.
3. When to graft? - Beginning of the growth period.
4. What are the types of grafting?
a. Top working - renewing of a tree
- Cleft graft,
- Whip graft,
- Bark graft.
- Bridge graft.
- Most practical and reliable,
- Demonstrations and practice of cutting bud shields,
- T-cuts, inserting, and wrapping.
2. The trainer demonstrates grafting techniques and the trainees practice techniques.
Trainer’s Note: During the pilot we were able to arrange for some of the trainees to observe beekeeping during this same time. We gave the trainees the choice between fruit tree grafting and beekeeping.