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close this book Forestry training manual for the Africa region
View the document Acknowledgements
View the document Trainee guidelines
Open this folder and view contents Training program overview
Open this folder and view contents Conducting the training program
Open this folder and view contents Presenting the sessions
View the document Words about transition
View the document Session 1 : Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the document Session 2 : Special projects
View the document Session 3 : The forests of the world, peace corps' forestry goals, the individual volunteer's role
View the document Session 4 : Record keeping - group process
View the document Session 5 : Video tapes
View the document Session 6 : Agro-forestry data collection
View the document Session 7 : Feedback
View the document Session 8 : Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the document Session 9 : Nutrition
View the document Session 10 : Non-verbal communication
View the document Session 11 : Germination
View the document Session 12 : Coping skills
View the document Session 13 : Basic site selection, planning & layout of a nursery
View the document Session 14 : Review of trainees' nursery plan
View the document Session 15 communication through illustration
View the document Session 16 : Soil preparation, seedbed sowing
View the document Session 17 : Individual interviews
View the document Session 18 : Reproduction by clippings and nursery review
View the document Session 19 : Introduction to extension
View the document Session 20 : Protection and record keeping (Insect collection)
View the document Session 20A : Chicken preparation
View the document Session 21 : The volunteers' role as an extensionist
View the document Session 22 : Tropical horticulture: care, tending and disease control
View the document Session 23 : Women in development - part I
View the document Session 24 : Team building
View the document Session 25 : Building and using a rustic transit
View the document Session 26 : Women in development - part II
View the document Session 27 : Working with groups as an extension worker
View the document Session 28 : Trees: identification & planting
View the document Session 29 : Lesson plan and use of visual aids in teaching
View the document Session 30 : The ugly American
View the document Session 31 : Catchments - sowing of seedlings into catchments
View the document Session 32 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 33 : Agro-forestry
View the document Session 34 : Community analysis introduction
View the document Session 35 : Soils
View the document Session 36 : Community analysis
View the document Session 37 : Irrigation
View the document Session 38 : Review of expectations - mid-way
View the document Session 39 : Problem analysis
View the document Session 40 : Soil erosion
View the document Session 41 : Species report - research demonstration
View the document Session 42 : Cultural values
View the document Session 43 : Wellbeing
View the document Session 44 : Field trip overview
View the document Session 45 : Agro-forestry reports
View the document Session 46 : Weekly interview
View the document Session 47 : Leave on week-long field trip
View the document Session 48 : Pesticides
View the document Session 49 : Review of field trips
View the document Session 50 : Resources
View the document Session 51 : Area measurement, pacing, compass use
View the document Session 52 : Compost heap - greenhouse construction - germination percentage
View the document Session 53 : Culture shock
View the document Session 54 : Range management
View the document Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees
View the document Session 56 : Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the document Session 57 : Project planning: goal setting
View the document Session 58 : Final interviews
View the document Session 59 : Ecology teams presentations
View the document Session 60 : Graduation

Session 55 : Grafting and fruit trees

Total time 3 hours 30 minutes

Goals

- To acquaint the trainees with fruit tree care and grafting techniques.

Overview

Foresters are often expected to be experts in all trees including fruit trees. As it is important to be knowledgeable on fruit tree culture, this session is devoted to grafting and fruit trees.

Exercise

1. Fruit Trees and Grafting Practice

Materials

Fruit trees for pruning, grafting, sharp knife, sharpening stone, plastic tape (grafting tape), bees wax.

Exercise 1 Fruit Trees and Grafting Practice

Total time 3 hours 30 minutes

Overview

In this exercise the trainees learn about fruit trees and fruit tree reproduction.

Procedures

Activities

1. The trainer gives the following lecture on fruit trees.

Time

3 hours 30 minutes

FRUIT TREES AND FORESTRY

Grafting and Fruit Trees

Foresters are often expected to be experts in all kinds of trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of some of the basics of fruit tree culture.

I. Differences between forestry for wood products and for fruits

A. Fruit trees are short term, usually with an annual production cycle:

B. They require intensive cultural practices; fertilization, pruning, grafting, disease and pest control,

C. In summary, fruit trees are domesticated trees needing a series of special treatments.

II. Critical cultural practices in detail

A. Pruning

1. Specific systems vary according to the crop,

2. Some basic rules are generally valid:

a. There should be a space for every branch and a branch for every space.

b. Watch the timing - Prune generally during the lowest growth period (dormancy) of the tree.

c. Prune with clean cuts so that the tree can heal with no projecting stumps so that rain will collect in the cut.

B. Grafting

1. What is grafting?

a. Grafting is the union of the cambium layers of a parent tree (stock) and a desired variety (scion) in such a way that the two form a solid, growing unit.

b. The continued growth from the scion is true to the scion's characteristics and is not a combination of stock and scion.

c. It is essential to protect grafts of all types with wax and/or by wrapping to prevent drying or mechanical damage.

2. Why graft?

A. Graft to achieve the desired variety of fruit with root stock adapted to local conditions,

B. Graft to gain time by multiplying a desired variety faster than plants from seeds,

C. Graft to assure genetic purity,

D. Graft to have several varieties on one tree for pollination purposes,

E. Graft for repair purposes it renews an old tree or repairs girdled trunks from rodents or mechanical damage.

3. When to graft? - Beginning of the growth period.

4. What are the types of grafting?

a. Top working - renewing of a tree

- Cleft graft,

- Whip graft,

- Bark graft.

b. Repair

- Bridge graft.

c. Budding

- Most practical and reliable,

- Demonstrations and practice of cutting bud shields,

- T-cuts, inserting, and wrapping.

Activities

2. The trainer demonstrates grafting techniques and the trainees practice techniques.

Time

3 hours

Trainer’s Note: During the pilot we were able to arrange for some of the trainees to observe beekeeping during this same time. We gave the trainees the choice between fruit tree grafting and beekeeping.