| Grazing and rangeland development for livestock production |
Management of rangelands and other grazing lands of the tropics and subtropics for support of livestock production. Technical Series Bulletin No. 23
1. Land Use and Livestock Populations
II. Inventory of the natural resources base of permanent grasslands.
D. Evaporation and humidity.
E. Length of the dry season.
F. Monsoon climates.
G. Mediterranean climates.
H. Categories of climates
2. Land forms and elevation.
3. Natural vegetation as an index of agricultural potential.
Low latitude (tropical) forests
Middle latitude forest
4. World soil grouping for forage production.
A. Tropical soils.
B. Major soil groups.
C. Soil deficiencies and plant growth.
D. Dependence of plants on soils.
E. Laterites and laterite soils.
5. Characteristics of permanent grasslands.
6. Soil surveys and land capability classes.
A. Lands suited for grasslands.
7. Present land use patterns, by ecological zones.
A. Dry rangelands in semi-desert zones.
B. Savanna lands.
C. Wet-dry tropics.
D. The humid tropics .
III. Coping with constraints affecting forage production and utilization on rangelands, sod other Permanent Grasslands
1. Climatic constraints.
2. Soil degradation.
3. Depletion of plant cover.
A. Loss of perennial forage plants.
B. Invasion by bush and tree growth.
C. Loss of forage legumes.
D. Shortened grazing season.
4. Unbalanced animal nutrition on depleted grazing lands.
A. Reduction in feed supply.
B. Reduced nutritive value of forages.
5 Overstocking and overgrazing.
6. Lack of stored feeds, and/or reserved grazing lands to support livestock in dry seasons.
7. Uncontrolled burning.
IV. The elements of productive grassland management.
1. Adjusting livestock numbers to match year-round feed supplies.
2. Providing mineral supplements to native forage.
3. Rotation grazing to permit forage growth periods for natural restoration of vegetative cover, on a regular sequence.
4. Prohibit uncontrolled burning of all grassland, and invoke other methods of controlling undesired vegetation.
5. Adoption of management practices to protect against wind and water erosion, and to improve water conservation in regions of limited rainfall.
6. Introducing superior forage species on rangelands and other permanent grasslands to improve forage yields and nutritive values.
A. Adapted grasses and legumes for different rainfall zones.
7. Correcting mineral deficiencies in soils of rangelands and other permanent grasslands.
8. Preparations for introducing superior Forage species in grazing lands.
A. Control of brush and trees.
B. Mineral requirements of forage species.
C. Seeding practices.
D. Planting methods.
9. Management of renovated grasslands.
V. Measuring productivity of rangelands and other permanent grasslands.
1. Estimating forage production during season of active growth.
2. Methods of estimating available feed supplies.
A. Sampling the standing forage plant growth
B. Supplemental feeds
3. Predicting seasonal forage Production on the basis of rainfall.
VI. Estimating Feed Requirements of Ruminant Livestock in Tropical and Sub-Tropical Regions.
1. Feed requirements for cattle.
2. Feed requirements for sheep and goats
3. Feed values of edible forage plants.
4. Relative feed values of growing forage plants on rangeland and pastures, and of mature plants.
5. Feed value of crop byproducts.
6. Balancing livestock numbers against total yearly feed supplies.
Appendix no. 1: Perennial Forage Grasses for the Tropics and Subtropics
Appendix no. 2: Seed Characteristics and Adaptive Features of Forage Grasses
Appendix no. 3: Major Forage Legumes for the Tropics and Sub-Tropics
Appendix no. 5: "Sources of seed of tropical legumes"
Appendix no. 6: Sources of Rhizobium Cultures for Tropical Legumes
Appendix no. 7: Additional publications dealing with livestock production and feed supplies
Leucaena leucocephala: an excellent feed for livestock. Technical Series Bulletin No. 25
Combined Crop/Livestock Farming Systems For Developing Countries of the Tropics and Sub-Tropics; Technical Series Bulletin No. 19
Benefits From Combined Systems
Land Resources & Livestock Populations
II. How livestock enterprises improve the profitability of farming systems
A. Providing nitrogen in the crop rotation.
B. Soil improvement for greater production.
C. Providing feed for livestock.
D. Animal manures for enhancing soil productivity.
E. Improved control of Plant pests.
F. Feed supplies for work animals.
G. Effective use of non-arable lands associated with cropped lands.
H. Profitable use of crop residues and by-products.
I. Animal products for human foods.
J. Livestock enterprises in combined farming systems stabilize incomes and cash flow
III. Facilitating the successful addition of livestock enterprises to crop farming systems.
A. Information on costs and benefits.
B. Providing livestock feed during dry seasons.
C. Technical assistance on effective use of feedstuffs.
D. Developing milk processing to greatly enlarge markets for local milk producers.
E. Effective livestock husbandry.
F Perennial forage grasses and legumes in crop rotations to support livestock enterprises.
G. Suitable credit for animal enterprises.
H. Providing animal health care.
I. Cautions on use of communal or open grazing lands.