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close this book Grazing and rangeland development for livestock production
close this folder Combined Crop/Livestock Farming Systems For Developing Countries of the Tropics and Sub-Tropics; Technical Series Bulletin No. 19
close this folder I. Introduction
View the document Benefits From Combined Systems
View the document Land Resources & Livestock Populations

Land Resources & Livestock Populations

The land resources and the livestock population in the developing countries are indicated in table 3. It should be noted that ruminant livestock (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and camels) have a dual role, being important both for utilizing natural grazing lands, and for combined crop/livestock farming. These ruminants produce milk, meat animals, and also supply animal power in many countries. Milk is produced by all classes of lactating ruminants; there are few "dairy" herds managed exclusively for milk production but widespread milk production in conjunction with meat production is normally feasible and profitable, and is a common practice in many developing countries.

Pigs and poultry (non-ruminants) are widely used in developing countries, supported largely by concentrate feeds and by-products. For family support, these animals generally consume by-products and kitchen wastes as scavengers of a variety of available feedstuffs that would otherwise be wasted; but for commercial enterprises, more substantial feed sources are required. Pig and poultry enterprises enjoy good markets, but feed costs often make them less profitable than enterprises based on ruminant types of livestock that subsist on forages and other cellulosic materials. Ruminant livestock enterprises are generally beneficial to crop production and provide opportunities for strengthening the farming system.

Table No. 3

Lands and Their Use by Livestock

Data from FAO Production Yearbook, 1974

A. Land Types and Uses, 1970-74

 

So. Amer.

Asia*

Africa

Three Continents

 

Millions of Hectares

TOTAL

Total Area

1,783

1,995

3,031

6.809

Arable lands (cropped)

89

350

211

650

(irrigated)

(6)

(76)

(8)

(90)

Permanent grasslands (1)

385

333

792

1,510

* not including Mainland China

(1) Most permanent grasslands are unsuited for cropping because of unfavorable climate or topographic or soil limitations. They must be utilized by ruminant livestock to support people and contribute to total food production.

B. Ruminant Livestock Population, 1974

 

Millions of Animals

Three Continents

Type animal

So. Amer.

Asia

Africa

TOTAL

Cattle

207

289

148

644

Buffalo and Camels

-

30

12

42

Sheep and Goats

147

494

266

907

Total "Sheep Equivalents"

1,182

2,089

1,066

4.337

(One large animal equals 5 sheep. One goat equals 1 sheep)

C. Non-Ruminant Livestock(2), 1974

Millions of Animals

 

So. Amer.

Asia

Africa

TOTAL

Pigs

50

56

7

113

Poultry

456

1,088

446

1,990

(2) Pigs and Poultry consume concentrate feeds, by-products, and crop products unsuited for human food.

Table No. 4

CLASSES OF FOODSTUFFS PRODUCED IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

A. Crop Foodstuffs for the Tropics and Subtropics

1. Cereal grains - 5 major species

2. Food grain regimes - 8 major species, 15 minor species

3. Oilseed crops - 5 major species

4. Root and Tuber crops - 5 major species

5. Plantain and Banana - 2 plant types - sweet and cooking types

6. Sugar crops - 3 major species

7. Vegetables - about 15 major species, many minor species

8. Fruits - 6 major species and many minor species

9. Other tree crops - 5 major species

(Collectively, one or more species of each group are grown extensively in every tropical and subtropical region) (except semi-desert zones).

B. Types of Livestock and Livestock food products

Food Animals

Products

1. Ruminants

(Utilization of grazing lands, harvested forages, and crop residues)

Cattle
Buffalo
Camels


Meat, Milk, Animal Power

Sheep
Goats

Meat, Milk

2. Non-Ruminants

(Utilization of concentrate feeds and by-products)

Pigs

Meat

Poultry

Meat, Eggs.