Cover Image
close this book Community Nutrition Action for Child Survival
close this folder Part I - Community nutrition problems and interventions
close this folder Unit 4: Introducing weaning practices in the community
View the document Session 1: Changing weaning practices
View the document Session 2: Making improved meaning foods in the home
View the document Session 3: Weaning food practice
View the document Session 4: Case study: Village weaning food projects in Thailand
View the document Session 5: Weaning foods - Village production techniques

Session 5: Weaning foods - Village production techniques

When weaning foods like those described in the Thailand case study are available, women need much less time to prepare frequent, high-quality meals for their weaning-age children. Packaged weaning foods can be distributed or sold at a reduced price for the rehabilitation of malnourished children. They can also be sold by community groups and individuals as an income generating activity.

Purpose:

Trainees are introduced to the technologies and locally developed recipes for village production of weaning foods. They practice making several weaning mixtures, then analyze the production process in terms of village resources and feasibility.

Time: 2 hours

Materials:

- Village-appropriate grinders. Two types of grinders are often required: a corn grinder for coarse grind and a coffee grinder for fine flour grinds.

- Village cooking utensils, including roasting pans, spoons for stirring and measuring, cups, sieve, winnow, charcoal cooker, etc.

- Handout - "How to Make Flour from Cereals, Tubers and Legumes"

- Handout - "Recipes for Village-Processed Weaning Foods"

- Handout - "Planning a Village Weaning Food Project"

- Small plastic bags and a candle for sealing

Prior to the Session:

Investigate the techniques and ingredients that have been or could be used to make mixed cereal and legume flours in your country. A description of the process and recipes developed in Indonesia are included for your information.

Steps:

1. Introduction - Tell trainees that they will practice using equipment and recipes for making packaged weaning foods. The techniques they will use in this session might be used in a village for production of weaning foods for sale or distribution.

2. Describe the Production Process

a. List the possible ingredients for cereal and legume mixtures that are grown in the trainees' regions.

b. Distribute and review the Handout - "How to Make Flour from Cereals, Tubers and Legumes."

c. Demonstrate the use of roasters and grinders.

3. Practice

a. Divide trainees into work groups. Assign each work group the preparation of one of the ingredients. Prepare sufficient quantities of each flour so that they can be used in several different combinations. Also prepare different consistencies of each ingredient: coarse grind for older children, fine flours for infants, etc.

b. Distribute the Handout - "Recipes for Village Processed Weaning Foods."

Assign each work group the preparation of one of the recipes. Groups should prepare one portion for sampling and one portion for packaging.

4. Discussion: Discuss the time and labor required to produce the weaning mixtures. Compare the tastes, consistencies, etc. Ask trainees what changes could be made in the process, ingredients, etc. to improve the production and the results. Ask them if, after trying the production of mixed weaning foods themselves, they would recommend this type of village weaning food in their areas.

5. Distribute the Handout - "Planning a Village Weaning Food Project. Review the questions on the handout with participants. Ask them individually or in their work groups to answer each of the questions. Review the results of this exercise in a group discussion.

6. Summary

The process used for weaning food production in this session can be modified to fit local needs and resources.

Projects started in several countries are experimenting with alternative ways of obtaining and processing the necessary raw ingredients for weaning mixtures.

For example:

- Raw ingredients are contributed by families (Indonesia)

- Families bring one or more of the roasted ingredients for grinding. (Nepal)

- Ingredients may be roasted and packaged for grinding later at home by the family. (Thailand)

In these cases, the community project is providing partial production and ingredients; the families are providing the remaining labor and raw ingredients for the weaning mixtures.

The type of project discussed in Sessions 4 and 5 makes a high-quality weaning mixture available to the community. The weaning mixture can be used for treating malnourished children, for making quick meals for weaning age children, and as an ingredient in snacks and meals for older children and adults.

If properly managed, this type of project can be self-sustaining. It may also provide added income for community self-help activities.

Before undertaking a village weaning food project, interested managers and groups should seek advice from local experts.

HANDOUT

HOW TO MAKE FLOUR FROM CEREALS, TUBERS AND LEGUMES

Green Gram
(Mung Beans)



Clean


Wash


Dry Roast slowly until cooked


Grind while hot
(coffee grinder)


Sieve


Fine flour

Beans
(Red, White)



Clean


Wash


Dry Roast slowly
until cooked


Grind coarse
(corn grinder)


Winnow


Grind fine
(coffee grinder)


Sieve


Fine flour

Maize
(dried, whole kernel)



Clean


Grind coarse
(corn grinder)


Winnow


Grind fine


Sieve


Grind


Sieve


Fine and
coarse flour

Sorghum



Clean


Dehusk


Winnow


Grind fine


Sieve


Fine flour

Cassava
(whole)



Peel


wash


Soak in lime water for about 5 minutes (2 grs. Lime to 1 liter water)


Dry with a clean cloth


Grate with metal grater


Dry about 5 hours in the sun or on a solar dryer


Grind

Sieve


Fine flour

HANDOUT

PLANNING A VILLAGE WEANING FOOD PROJECT

Production of weaning foods for distribution and sale requires special equipment and knowledge of production techniques. The people who will make the weaning mixtures must be trained and supervised. Distribution and sale of the mixtures require careful recordkeeping and financial skills.

Individuals and village groups who are interested in starting weaning food production should consider the following before they begin:

GOALS

- What are our goals for this activity?

PRODUCTION

- What ingredients will we use?
- What equipment will we use? Types of grinders, roasters, etc.?
- Where will we produce the weaning foods?
- Who will produce them?
- How will the weaning foods be packaged?

RESOURCES

- How will we obtain the raw ingredients?
- How will we obtain the equipment and the space we need?
- Who will train group members, workers, etc., to make and control the distribution of the weaning foods?

DISTRIBUTION/SALES

- Will the weaning foods be sold?
- Will the weaning foods be given free? Under what circumstances?
- What records and reports will we need to control inventory and sales?

COMMUNITY

- How will we introduce the weaning foods to community members?
- How much would most community members be able or willing to pay for the weaning foods?

HANDOUT

RECIPES FOR VILLAGE-PROCESSED WEANING FOODS

Indonesia

 

Raw Weight

Local Measure

   

Package

Maize flour (fine)

50 grs.

1/2 plastic cup (100 ml.)

Green gram flour (fine)

25 grs.

2 1/2 tablespoons

Sugar

15 grs.

1 tablespoon (15 ml.)

Salt

1 pinch

 

Coconut oil or
Groundnut paste

5 grs.
15 grs.

1 teaspoon
1 tablespoon

Water

400 ml.

2 plastic cups (400 ml.)

Cook for about 10 minutes. Makes 1-2 servings. Add 50 grs. (2 handfuls) of finely chopped green leafy vegetables about 5 minutes before porridge is ready.

Indonesia

 

Raw Weight

Local Measure

   

Package

Maize flour (fine)

50 grs.

1/2 plastic cup (100 ml.)

Green gram flour (fine)

25 grs.

2 1/2 tablespoons

Sugar

10 grs.

1 tablespoon (15 ml.)

Salt

1 pinch

 

Coconut oil

5 grs.

1 teaspoon

Water

400 ml.

2 plastic cups (400 ml.)

Cook 10 minutes. Makes 1-2 servings. Add 50 grs. finely chopped green leafy vegetables.

Nepal

"Sarbottam Pitho" (Super-flour)

Cereal grain

2 kilos

(1 kilo of 2 of the following: maize, rice, sorghum, millet)

Legume

1 kilo

(soybeans, green gram, beans)

Roast legume and cereal grains together. Grind to fine flour. Makes 3 kilos or 40-50 servings. Cook in boiling water. Add salt, sugar, oil to taste.

Thailand

"Kow Tip"

Rice

3 kilos

Mung Bean

1 kilo

Groundnut

1 kilo

Sugar

(optional)

Roast mung beans and groundnuts for 5-10 minutes. Roast rice for 3-5 minutes. Combine and grind. Makes 50 packages of 100 grams each. Can be cooked as porridge or in cakes for snacks.

REFERENCES

Cameron, M. and Hofvander, Y. Manual on Feeding Infants and Young Children. Oxford University Press, 1983.

Gibbons, G. and Griffiths, M. Program Activities for Improving Weaning Practices. World Federation of Public Health Associations, Geneva, 1984.

Nabarro, D., Gordon, G., Verney, J. and Wijga, A. "Finding Out How Children Are Weaned. " Save the Children Fund (U.K.), 1984.

Valyasevi A. "Home and Village Prepared Weaning Foods Project." Paper prepared for the Workshop of Weaning Foods Projects. MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982.