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close this book Water purification, distribution and sewage disposal for Peace Corps volunteers
close this folder Section 6: Operation and maintenance
View the document Overview:
View the document Water source maintenance and inspection
View the document Regulations for installing new service connections or extensions to existing system.
View the document Regulations for cleaning the distributions system
View the document Inventorying for operation in emergencies
View the document Types of financial statements for small waterworks
View the document Lesson plans

Water source maintenance and inspection

QUALITY OF WATER AT SOURCE

After water has been purified, cleanliness of all handling facilities is of utmost importance. All stations and men who maintain them must maintain the sanitary quality of the water.

WELFARE Of PERSONNEL:

Persons suffering from communicable diseases must be prevented from coming into contact with the water supply. This includes grass-cutters in the premises of the pump-house, attendants who clean the filters and storage plants, etc. All personnel should be medically examined at least once a year, preferably Just before the annual cleaning operation.

PROTECTION OF FACILITIES

1. No unauthorized persons to enter pumping stations, treatment works, etc.

2. Open reservoirs should be fenced and the gate locked wherever possible. A guard should always be on duty to stop trespassers from washing or swimming in the reservoirs.

3. Install drinking fountains in a proper place, and a place for workmen to wash their hands.

4. Latrines should be built in the vicinity, but at a safe distance from the source.

5. Pump-house must be locked whenever the attendant is out of it.

6. Trespassers should be handed over to the local authorities for punishment.

7. Chemicals and fuels must be stored at their designated places at all times.

8. Inspection of water quality and quantity at the source must be carried out regularly and recommendations made whenever applicable.

INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS

1. Check all exposed joints for possible leaks.

2. Check possible growth of micro-organisms (e.g. algae) in the system.

3. Metal surfaces which come into contact with purified water (e.g. pipes) should be checked for possible emission of chemical solutions into the system.

4. Accidental cross-connections of pipes often occur, and the inspector must make sure there are no such mistakes.

5. Where applicable, pressure in the system must be maintained at the desired level at all times.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC FACILITIES

Once a system has been installed, it is essential that maximum attention be paid to its maintenance and smooth operation. Experience points out that it is not often possible to find men with necessary skills to operate the system. Most often than not, such men have to be trained from the scratch.

PERSONNEL TRAINING

1. Select possible employees for administrative and operative Jobs early during the construction period. During this time, the men have an opportunity to learn how the system has been put together and works.

2. Where many such projects are run, a period of training personnel in key responsibilities is strongly recommended. This should be devoted to instilling into them the concept that the project is theirs and therefore must be treated as personal property.

3. Manufacturers' recommendations as to operation and maintenance procedures should be simplified (or translated) so that the men may scrupulously observe. This is especially important with regard to pumping machinery.

4. Draw large scale picture of the equipment in question and draw arrows indicating where and what to do.

5. On the equipment itself, wherever possible, large labels should show where to apply grease, fuel, etc.

6. Supervision should ensure that procedures and schedules are followed.

EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLIFIED TECHNICAL PROCEDURE:

A flow chart of a treatment system is shown below:


Fig. 58 Treatment System Flow Chart

RECORDING REPAIRS

Common causes to major system breakdowns:

1. Operators unable to recognize signs which portend failures and breakdowns.

2. Operators with no skill to pinpoint and repair minor breakdowns, but try at random to tighten a nut or screw. This often results in greater breakdowns.

3. Operators using equipment and materials under conditions for which they were not designed.

Record Chart - The illustration below can be modified to suit the occasion.

TABLE 8: REPAIR RECORD CHART

Classification

Minor

Major

Operator

Consultant

X

 

X

 
 

X

 

X

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 
 

X

 

X

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 
 

X

 

X

X

 

X

 

Description of Breakdown

At Source

1. Cracked well-cover

2. Decrease in well yield

Pump

3. Broken pump belt

4. Clogged plugs

5. Broken cup leathers (washers)

6. Faulty fuel and air filters and cooling fans

7. Faulty injectors in diesel engines

Distribution System

8. Leaky reservoirs

9. Leaky pipe joints and valves

10. Broken inspection covers

11. Faulty meters

Purification system

12. Faulty chemical dispenser

The above suggestions should be expanded to suit the scope of the system and the capability of the operators and maintenance men. See Table 9 as an example for the maintenance of a G. M. Diesel 71.

TABLE 9: MAINTENANCE CHART OF A G. M. DIESEL

 

Time Interval

 

Daily

8

50

100

200

300

500

1,000

2,000

   

240

1,500

3,000

6,000

9,000

15,000

30,000

60,000

Item

Operation

 

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

Miles

1

Engine Oil

X

               

2

Oil Filter

                 

3

Coolant and Filter

X

         

X

X

 

4

Belts and Fan Bearings

           

X

X

X

5

Heat Exchanger Electrodes and Care

           

X

X

 

6

Hoses

           

X

   

7

Row Water Pump

X

               

8

Radiators

               

X

9

Fuel Tank

X

         

X

   

10

Fuel Strainer and Filter

X

       

X

     

11

Air Cleaner

 

X

             

12

Blower Screen

             

X

 

13

Air Box Drains

       

X

 

X

   

14

Crankcase Ventilation

             

X

 

15

Starting Motor

                 

16

Battery-Charging Generators

     

X

X

 

X

 

X

17

Battery

     

X

         

18

Tachometer Drive

     

X

         

19

Throttle Controls

       

X

       

20

Tune-Up

             

X

 

21

Power Take-Off

 

X

X

     

X

   

22

Reduction Gear (Single Engine Unit)

 

X

X

     

X

X

 

23

Torqmatic Marine Gear

X

     

X

       

24

Paragon Marine Gear

X

     

X

       

25

Torqmatic Converted*

* Single and Multiple Engine Units

X

           

X

 

26

Reduction Gear (Multiple Engine Industrial Units)

X

X

         

X

 

27

Reduction Gear (Multiple Engine Industrial Units)

X

     

X

       

28

Turbocharger

X

           

X

 

29

Overspeed Governor

           

X

   

30

Power Generator

     

X

 

X

     

31

Transmission (Roilcor)

X

           

X

 

32

Oil Filter (Roilcor)

                 

33

Hydrostarter

             

X

X

 

RECORD KEEPING

The operation and maintenance of a distribution system require the establishment of system maps and records.

Requirements of the Systems Map

1. Large scale; no less than 1:10,000

2. Show all streets and their names

3. Locations of mains and their sizes should be shown

4. Valves (and hydrants) must be labelled and numbered appropriately.

5. Sources, reservoirs and pump-houses should be Included in the map.

6. A wall-size map of the whole system should be supplied for office use. Copies of the map should be divided into sections and bound for easy handling in the field.